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nonoxidizing acids

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... in mixed acids and salts in an objective manner. It tabulates the nominal compositions of pertinent Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo corrosion-resistant alloys. The article describes the acid and acid-plus-salt mixtures classified into the following general categories: nonoxidizing acid mixtures (H 2 SO 4 +H 3 PO 4...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract This article provides information on basic chemical equilibria, wet analytical chemistry, and the appropriateness of classical wet methods. It focuses on nonoxidizing acids and oxidizing acids. The article includes information on the qualitative methods used to identify materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... analytical chemistry. Mechanical methods and nonoxidizing acids and/or acid mixtures for dissolving solid samples for wet chemical analysis are then reviewed. Qualitative methods that are used to identify materials by wet chemical reaction are also included. The article provides information on various...
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 21 Effect of oxygen on corrosion rates for copper in 1.2 N solutions of nonoxidizing acids. Specimens are immersed for 24 h at 24 °C (75 °F). Oxygen content of the solutions varied from test to test, depending on the concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere above the solutions. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... appreciable amounts of molybdenum. Molybdenum additions to nickel substantially improve resistance to nonoxidizing acid environments. Hastelloy alloys are typical of alloys belonging to this category of materials. In the last article, weldability and material selection issues associated with corrosion...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., and deaerated nonoxidizing acids. Copper alloy artifacts have been found in nearly pristine condition after having been buried in the earth for thousands of years, and copper roofing in rural atmospheres has been found to corrode at rates of less than 0.4 mm (15 mils) in 200 years. Copper alloys resist many...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... freshwaters, and in deaerated nonoxidizing acids, and it has excellent resistance to corrosion by caustic alkalies. Therefore, nickel offers very useful corrosion resistance, and it is an excellent base on which to develop specialized alloys that can capitalize on the unique properties of specific alloying...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... those chemical and physical properties that make them applicable for structures, or as components of systems, that are exposed to environments above 538 °C (1000 °F).” Nowadays, refractories are made of not only oxides and nonoxide compounds (carbides, nitrides, and carbons), but also of metallic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of cleaning section of modern coating line that provides both wet and furnace types of surface preparation Wet Cleaning Methods Wet cleaning is a generic term that means aqueous solutions are used to prepare the surface of the strip. This term incorporates both alkaline and acid processes. The wet...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... and thermal conductivity, ease of fabricating and joining, wide range of attainable mechanical properties, and resistance to biofouling. Copper corrodes at negligible rates in unpolluted air, water, and deaerated nonoxidizing acids. Examples of the corrosion resistance of copper alloys are artifacts that have...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004186
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... power and is classified as a nonoxidizing acid, much like dilute sulfuric acid. Commercial phosphoric acid made by wet process/acid digestion of phosphate rock usually contains impurities such as fluorides, sulfates, fluorosilicic acid, metal ions, and chlorides that markedly increase its corrosivity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... dissolved salts (demineralization), a strong acid exchanger in the hydrogen cycle (acid) is used in combination with a strong base exchanger in the hydroxyl cycle (caustic). The combination of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions produces ion-free water at a neutral pH. For low-pressure (<1 MPa, or 150 psig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006491
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... substrate is then desmutted with nitric acid to remove surface aluminum oxide and the aluminum substrate is then zincated followed by metal plating. A double zincate procedure is typically used wherein a first zincate layer is stripped using nitric acid and a second zincate layer is applied to the aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... in HCl under nonaerated nonoxidizing conditions are 0.08 to 0.1 mm/yr (3 to 4 mils/yr) in up to 20% acid and 0.5 mm/yr (20 mils/yr) in concentrated acid at 25 °C (75 °F). At 70 °C (160 °F), rates are approximately 1 mm/yr (40 mils/yr) in up to 20% acid and over 6.4 mm/yr (250 mils/yr) in concentrated (35...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., copper, manganese, silicon, and carbon. It has found a wide variety of applications involving caustic soda, water, nonoxidizing acids, alkaline salt solutions, chlorine, hydrogen chloride, fluorine, and molten salts. Nickel has relatively high electrical and thermal conductivity as well as a high Curie...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001430
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... the face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure and increase the stacking, fault energy of the fcc phase. Molybdenum and tungsten additions act as solid-solution strengtheners and enhance the corrosion resistance of cobalt-base alloys in nonoxidizing media. Cobalt-base CR alloys have been used in the pulp...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., and coating of aluminum. These include abrasive blast cleaning, barrel finishing, polishing, buffing, satin finishing, chemical cleaning, chemical brightening, electrolytic brightening, chemical etching, alkaline etching, acid etching, chemical conversion coating, electroplating, immersion plating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... and corrosion resistance; and corrosion applications of these precious metals. The article also tabulates the corrosion rates of these precious metals in corrosive environment, namely, acids, salts, and halogens. corrosion resistance fabricability gold iridium mechanical properties osmium oxidation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... The concept of the hydrogen probe is based on the fact that one of the cathodic reaction products in nonoxidizing acidic systems is hydrogen. The hydrogen atoms thus generated diffuse through the vessel wall and are liberated at the exterior surface. In one variation, a hydrogen probe contains a piece...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... of oxygen concentration differential cell corrosion. Another challenge is the presence of microorganisms in the raw water that may contribute to MIC, which can cause failures in service water piping and heat exchangers. Types of bacteria related to MIC include sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), acid...