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nonlubricated environments

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... to improve tribological performance of structural materials in lubricated and nonlubricated environments. It discusses the fundamentals of various laser materials interactions and reviews laser-based surface-modification strategies, including laser surface heating and melting, laser-synthesized coatings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... of the various constituents in the case can be modified by changes in the base alloy content, carbon content, and thermal treatment. It is possible to optimize the martensite/austenite/carbide ratio to achieve maximum wear resistance for particular environments. Fig. 3 Micrograph of a high-carbon (≈0.85...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... of the early research aimed at understanding the basic nature of sliding wear was aimed at nonlubricated contacts. With dry sliding, surface damage is usually apparent to the naked eye, and the magnitude of material loss is easier to measure. Early studies lacked high-precision profiling instruments and high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... layer can also contain compacted wear debris. This layer will tend to break out and form wear debris. Fig. 1 Bronze transfer to a steel surface after adhesive wear during sliding contact Adhesive wear is a function of material combination, lubrication, and environment. For instance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... of materials but rather represent the response of a material pair in a certain environment to imposed forces, which tend to produce relative motion between the paired materials. Friction and wear behavior is, therefore, subject to the considerations of testing geometry, the characteristics of the relative...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003558
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... motion Loading Type of lubrication Environment This tribosystem concept can be extended to include those elements or factors that affect the fundamental ones listed. In practice, it generally is appropriate to think of the tribosystem as at least extending to the mechanism or device...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... will be constant with time, as will the nature of the tribosystem. The roller constantly wears, but the surface is always polished. The wear debris is carried away with the product, and nothing in the system changes. This statement must be qualified by noting that the environment (humidity, temperature, and so...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the classification of wear based on the presence or absence of effective lubricants, namely, lubricated and nonlubricated wear. Variations in ambient temperature, atmosphere, load, and sliding speed, as well as variations in material bulk composition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... in the system changes. This statement must be qualified by noting that the environment (humidity, temperature, and so forth) may cause friction to change with time. Environmental effects are discussed later in this article. Fig. 11 Friction test specimen configuration options Fig. 12 Effect...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., inefficient operation, and system failure. Classification of Wear One of the simplest classifications of wear is based on the presence or absence of effective lubricants—namely, lubricated and nonlubricated wear. (The various types of lubrication are described later in this article.) Wear may also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003842
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
.... In these applications, ceramics are exposed not only to high temperatures but also to aggressive gases and deposits. This article reviews the response of ceramic materials to these environments in terms of corrosion mechanisms, the relative importance of a particular corrodent, and, where available, corrosion rates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... force until the coating or coating composite fails. Various tribological tests are used to determine the friction and wear characteristics both under lubricated and nonlubricated conditions. Different load spectrums are tested mainly according to different velocities, loads, geometries, and temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006431
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... of the zirconia. Nevertheless, in humid environments and elevated temperatures, zirconia loses its good properties due to its tetragonal-to-monoclinic transformation, which is associated with an increase in volume and therefore to cracking and high wear. Silicon Nitride Silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
...” because concentrations of 0.125, 0.25, 0.75, and 10% adversely affected the bare or anodized specimens, or both. Fig. 1 Coupons of unprotected 3004 alloy sheet showing effects of exposure for several years in outdoor corrosive environments. (a) Coupons exposed for eight years to severe seacoast...
Book Chapter

By P.H. Shipway
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006414
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
..., such as fretting duration, slip amplitude, normal load, fretting frequency, contact geometry, type of vibration, and surface finish, as well as the role of environmental conditions. The article reviews the influence of an aqueous environment on the mechanism of fretting. The steps that can be taken to reduce...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005707
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... Laser CVD Coat localized areas on a surface without bulk heating 200–1000 390–1830 100 torr–1 atm Packed-bed CVD Alloy/conversion coatings in powder packed-bed environment 500–1200 930–2190 100 torr–1 atm Fluidized-bed CVD Coat powders and small components 350–1600 660–2910 100 torr–1...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The lubrication was then removed from the bronze bearing at the other end of the axle. The car traveled 55 km (34 miles) before the journal broke under the bronze bearing due to copper penetration ( Ref 7 ). The journal under the nonlubricated cast iron bearing was still red hot, but had not broken. The 1952...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001264
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... to 125 μm (3 to 5 mils) are normally used in corrosive environments. Coatings thicker than 250 μm (10 mils) are used for salvage or repair of worn or mismachined parts ( Ref 12 ). Adhesion Adhesion of electroless nickel coatings to most metals is excellent. The initial replacement reaction, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... a high weld depth-to-width ratio eliminates the need for multiple-pass welds, as is required in arc welding. The lower heat input results in a narrow workpiece heat-affected zone (HAZ) and noticeably fewer thermal effects on the workpiece. In EBW, a high-purity vacuum environment can be used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...) degree of cleanness required, which depends on subsequent operations such as phosphating, plating and painting; (d) capabilities of the available facilities; (e) impact of the process on the environment; and (f) overall cost of the process. Types of soil may be broadly classified into six groups...