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nonequilibrium reactions

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
...Abstract Abstract Similar to the eutectic group of invariant transformations is a group of peritectic reactions, in which a liquid and solid phase decomposes into a solid phase on cooling through the peritectic isotherm. This article describes the equilibrium freezing and nonequilibrium...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0006547
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...Abstract Abstract Overpotential is the current-producing potential difference between a nonequilibrium electrode potential and its corresponding equilibrium value for an electrode reaction. This article provides information on the overpotential of an electrode reaction. It contains a table...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...) is the rate-controlling step for the peritectic reaction. Eventually, at the nonequilibrium solidus, the final zinc-enriched liquid transforms to zinc-rich β-brass. For a local solidification time of 1500 s, the segregation ratio is S ≈ 44 / 31.3 = 1.42 and f β nsq = 8 % ( Ref 33...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... to their growth processes. Figure 1 is a modification of Christian's classification. Also included in this modified chart are homogeneous transformations (e.g., spinodal and ordering reactions) and the addition of the massive transformation under interface controlled—no long-range transport. Specific...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... applicable to galvanic cells for aqueous solutions is discussed elsewhere in this Volume. Only those aspects that are different for molten salts are emphasized in this article. Thus, for the cell given in Eq 1 , the cell reactions are: (Eq 3, 4) Ag = Ag + + e −   1 2 Cl 2 + e...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
.... Example shown is for a simple eutectic system that forms primary α phase and intercellular α/β eutectic under conditions of nonequilibrium solidification. Location of composition trace is across primary and eutectic α phase, as shown by horizontal dotted line. On a microscopic scale, there can also...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... that different degrees of departure from equilibrium constitute a hierarchy that corresponds to increasing solidification rate ( Ref 4 ): full diffusional (global) equilibrium, local interfacial equilibrium, metastable local interfacial equilibrium, and interfacial nonequilibrium. Full Diffusional (Global...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of nonequilibrium phase diagrams are also available ( Ref 10 ). There are several possible origins of metastable phases, depending on the situation: “impurity” effects on the phase relationship (some alloying additions and impurities act to stabilize, at room temperature, phases normally found at higher...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003732
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Abstract Abstract Spinodal transformation is a phase-separation reaction that occurs from kinetic behavior. This article discusses the theory of spinodal decomposition, and outlines the methods used in the characterization of spinodal structures in metal matrices. microstructure spinodal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003725
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... carbon steel, low-alloy steel, and cast iron; some high-alloy steels are addressed as well. Steel Plain carbon (unalloyed) steel is an alloy whose equilibrium phase diagram (the iron-carbon diagram) exhibits partial solid solubility with a peritectic reaction (see Fig. 1c in the article...
Book Chapter

By Jude Mary Runge
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006523
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... that would normally not support such a reaction. Source: Ref 6 Surface Reconstruction and Porous Anodic Oxide Growth Polarization of the surface provides the conditions for forming an ordered, stable oxide under nonequilibrium conditions. Under these conditions, it is assumed that all aqueous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... parameter, such as shear modulus, bonding energy, and transformations, for prediction of interface structures. It provides information on the application of the atomistic modeling of interface structure to predict interface reaction mechanisms. localization parameter interface structures interface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... along the grain boundaries ( Fig. 5 ). The melting, often termed liquation, occurs because of a reaction between the dissolving precipitate and the matrix. When this melting is accompanied by sufficient thermal stress, cracks can form along the HAZ grain boundaries, and extend into the fusion zone...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... used commercial alloys, the allowable composition range encompasses only a small portion of the relevant phase diagram. The nonequilibrium conditions that are usually encountered in practice, however, necessitate the knowledge of a much greater portion of the diagram. Therefore, a thorough...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... than in liquids during the eutectic reaction. Therefore, nonequilibrium transformations are even more important in eutectoid solid-state reactions than in the liquid-to-solid eutectic reactions. Subsequent cooling of pearlite from the eutectoid to room temperature produces only insignificant changes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of reactions to deposit metal onto a part: electroless and displacement. This article explains the various types of electroless and dispersion alloy coating systems. It provides information on the processing of parts, process control, deposit analysis, and equipment used for coating nonelectrolytic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003709
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... the cathode in an electric field. Corrosion In its broadest sense, corrosion is the deterioration of a metallic or nonmetallic material by reaction with its environment involving processes other than strictly mechanical or thermal processes. Applied to metallic materials, corrosion is the deterioration...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... that concerns the physical change of state of a chemical system following the laws of thermodynamics is called chemical thermodynamics. The thermodynamic properties of individual phases can be used for evaluating their relative stability and heat evolution during phase transformations or reactions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
..., which are manifested in processes such as cleaning, brightening, etching, conversion coatings, electroplating, and anodizing. Point defects such as vacancies and dislocations agglomerate and accumulate at grain boundaries, which change the interfacial energy and confound the electrochemical reaction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... equations. It describes the modeling of vapor-surface interactions and kinetics of hetereogeneous processes as well as the modeling and kinetics of homogenous reactions in chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The article provides information on the various stages of developing models for numerical simulation...