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nonequilibrium electrode potential

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0006547
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract Overpotential is the current-producing potential difference between a nonequilibrium electrode potential and its corresponding equilibrium value for an electrode reaction. This article provides information on overpotential of an electrode reaction. It contains a table that lists...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... (hot) plasmas are considered in this article. The term thermal differentiates these plasmas from cold (nonequilibrium) plasmas, which are characterized by high electron temperatures and low sensible temperatures of the heavy particles. Cold plasmas are produced in various types of glow discharges...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... be considered: (Eq 13) CH 4 + H 2 O → CO + 3 H 2 (Eq 14) CH 4 + CO 2 → 2 CO + 2 H 2 Equations 13 and 14 are usually considered to be nonequilibrium reactions and are comparatively slow, as endothermic reactions. These reactions involve considerable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... exceeding equilibrium solubilities. This has been a successful approach for improving localized corrosion resistance ( Ref 69 , Ref 70 , Ref 71 , Ref 72 , Ref 73 ). Here, the native oxide formed on crystalline aluminum is already amorphous, and the main benefits of nonequilibrium alloying derive from...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005332
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... with the attendant effects of pronounced segregation, undercooling, and nonequilibrium, which are caused by inadequate diffusion and exacerbated by blocked feeding channels. These alloys do not lend themselves to heat treatment or melt processes, such as inoculation or grain nement, that are intended...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... generation. Several SOFC designs are under development. Planar and monolithic SOFCs, which are comprised of stacks of flat or corrugated sheets of electrodes and electrolytes, offer the potential for relatively inexpensive manufacture but may entail intricate manifolding of gas flows at elevated temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... reduced by the mere elimination of impurities, and improvements in corrosion resistance of many of the newer magnesium alloys are due to the careful control of impurities. The electrochemical thermodynamics of magnesium can be visualized in the form of a Pourbaix diagram. Figure 1 is the potential-pH...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... areas may become active and exhibit a potential near −0.5 V. SCE, saturated calomel electrode. Adapted from Ref 2 Although the measurement of potentials has limitations as previously noted, galvanic series based on seawater or other standard electrolytes are worthwhile for initial materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... and cardiac pacing leads and electrodes (although platinum and platinum-base alloys are now more common for the latter application). Cobalt-base alloys are also used for forming aneurysm clips and other devices requiring high yield strength, fatigue resistance, and good springback qualities. Table...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... sphere model is a useful but oversimplified molecular model for defining the interaction force (or potential) between particles. There is only a repulsive term, which is equal to zero for distances r > d and equal to ∞ for r = d . Of course, more sophisticated and realistic models have been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... Sputter deposition and ion implantation are nonequilibrium alloying techniques that allow solid solution alloys to be formed, which are unattainable by conventional alloying techniques. Corrosion-resistant aluminum-molybdenum and aluminum-chromium alloys have been formed by cosputter deposition of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.9781627081719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... volume fraction, by settling small particles out of the liquid and creating large regions of particle-free liquid with high thermal resistance ( Ref 43 ). Using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, Eapen et al. showed that the thermal conductivity of a well-dispersed nanofluid was enhanced...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... equilibrium conditions, additional chromium carbide precipitates from the austenite matrix upon cooling from the eutectic to the critical temperature, that is, approximately 760 °C (1400 °F), and transformation to ferrite and carbide occurs with subsequent cooling. However, when cooling under nonequilibrium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... resistance, and lower fatigue crack propagation rates. Fig. 2 Ti-6Al-4V microstructures produced by cooling from different temperatures. Original magnification: 250× In the alpha-beta alloys, the presence of nonequilibrium phases, such as titanium martensite or metastable beta, results in...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... terms of product handling and burnout in customer plants. The main products of the advanced ceramics industry, both existing and potential, are listed in Table 3 , which indicates the key end property requirements, the main applications, and the raw material base for the products ( Ref 19 , 20...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... smelting and melting operations. Carbon electrodes carry the high-current/low-voltage power to the work to be heated. They are rarely used for sintering operations. Induction furnaces are generally used for melting and surface hardening operations. They are sometimes used in sintering operations in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... The control of pH and immersion time is important. Dissolved titanium and the active fluoride ion make it impossible to use glass electrodes for pH measurements. Indicator paper and colorimetry are the most satisfactory methods for measuring in the degreasing and chemical immersion baths, which are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... treatable aluminum alloys. Of course, the basic process involves solution heat treating, quenching to create a metastable (nonequilibrium) state, and age hardening. Additional steps in this basic process also may include processing for relief of stresses (induced by quenching) and more complex aging...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... chemical change, phase analysis remains essential for the determination of the identities and compositions of phases in the processed ceramic material. It can be used to ensure that equilibrium has been attained or, in some cases, that a desired nonequilibrium assemblage has been produced. Phase analysis...