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nonequilibrium cooling

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract Similar to the eutectic group of invariant transformations is a group of peritectic reactions, in which a liquid and solid phase decomposes into a solid phase on cooling through the peritectic isotherm. This article describes the equilibrium freezing and nonequilibrium freezing...
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Published: 30 November 2018
Fig. 12 Nonequilibrium eutectic in aluminum-copper alloys. The curve for the Brody and Flemings (B-F) model is calculated by using Eq 3 . The conversion from cooling rate to local solidification time was made for the expected freezing range (130 °C, or 235 °F) of the Al-4.5%Cu alloy. More
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... by the local minimum, and the fraction of nonequilibrium constituents, f nsq , are two, among several, measures of the extent of microsegregation. Because solute redistribution processes continuously alter the apparent microstructure during solidification and postsolidification cooling, interrupted...
Image
Published: 01 June 2016
Fig. 21 The nickel-copper phase diagram and the microstructure of a Ni-30Cu alloy that has been cooled rapidly from the liquid, developing a nonequilibrium cored structure. (a) Nickel-copper phase diagram. (b) to (d) The microstructure at increasingly higher magnifications. Note in (d More
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... activity of inventors in this field: splat cooling, melt quenching, planar flow casting, laser annealing, and so on. Thin plasma-sprayed deposits may have the characteristics of rapidly solidified samples. All of these techniques may be thought of as casting where at least one physical dimension is small...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... in age-hardenable alloys that are slowly cooled or reheated through the hardening temperature range in the presence of residual or applied stress in a constrained condition. The rate of hardening is of primary importance relative to the heating or cooling rate through the hardening temperature range...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003725
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...-time annealing at temperatures high enough to austenitize a specimen produces a microstructure free of nonequilibrium constituents (in particular, bainite, martensite, and the massive and Widmanstätten ferrite) that obscure the original dendritic structure. The original columnar dendrites (light...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006496
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... range of cooling rates for three commercial casting processes: die, permanent mold, and sand casting. Fig. 10 Nonequilibrium eutectic in aluminum-copper alloys For slower solidification rates, the amount of eutectic is 70 to 80% of the value predicted by the Scheil equation. As the cooling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... on the solidification parameters during welding, are discussed. The article discusses important solidification parameters, including temperature gradient, solid/liquid interface growth rate, and cooling rate. cooling rate fusion welds grain growth microstructural evolution nucleation rapid solidification...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... temperature. Care should be taken to avoid incipient melting during homogenization, since it could cause severe distortion of parts and degrade the properties of the casting. Homogenization temperature and time are selected based on the composition of the alloy and thermal history of the casting. Slow cooling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
...., metals) are different than those of conventionally fabricated materials of comparison. That is, due to the nonequilibrium cooling rate and largely localized melting induced in most additive manufacturing processes (e.g., laser powder-bed fusion), the microstructure and therefore the mechanical properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Distribution of elements in the solid and liquid. In the liquid state, the elements are distributed uniformly. As a result of nonequilibrium solidification (the usual case), the elements segregate, each partitioning preferentially to either the liquid or solid during solidification. The resulting nonuniform...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... been slowly cooled under equilibrium conditions. As rapid cooling continues through T 3 and T 4 , the same processes occur, and the average composition follows the nonequilibrium solidus determined by points α 1 , α′ 2 , α′ 3 , and so forth. At T 7 , freezing is complete and the average...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003995
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... deformation, the cooling rate to room temperature. The following sections briefly describe these TMP variables and the general distinctions between conventional hot rolling and common types of controlled-rolling schedules. Strain, Strain Rate, and Temperature In any industrial hot deformation process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... the classification of transformations by growth processes. crystallography multiphase microstructure Solid-state transformation substructure transformation structure SOLID-STATE TRANSFORMATION structures are produced from one or more parent phases, usually on cooling, and the product structure can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... ⋅ 100  Area of (acceptable + unacceptable particles)  There are several commercial programs available today (2016) based on the first and second derivatives of the cooling curves. Nonequilibrium Solidification Deviations from equilibrium due to kinetic effects during solidification...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005332
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., because of nonequilibrium solidification and cooling, which is characteristic of the casting process, the alloys with more than approximately 8.5% Al contain substantial β phase at higher temperatures. This phase further transforms to α + γ 2 as the casting cools to room temperature, as explained earlier...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... the use of equilibrium binary phase diagrams as a tool in the interpretation of microstructures. It reviews an account of the two types of solid-state phase transformations: isothermal and athermal. The article discusses isothermal transformation and continuous cooling transformation diagrams which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
..., as well as the nonequilibrium effects. casting solidification supercooling model weld microstructure welding OF ALL PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS, few have been more widely observed and studied than the transformation of a liquid to a solid (that is, solidification). The process of solidification...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., the allowable composition range encompasses only a small portion of the relevant phase diagram. The nonequilibrium conditions that are usually encountered in practice, however, necessitate the knowledge of a much greater portion of the diagram. Therefore, a thorough understanding of alloy phase diagrams...