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nondestructive testing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Nondestructive testing (NDT), also known as nondestructive evaluation (NDE), includes various techniques to characterize materials without damage. This article focuses on the typical NDE techniques that may be considered when conducting a failure investigation. The article begins with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... metallography root cause analysis visual testing penetrant testing magnetic particle testing THE GOAL OF USING NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION (NDE) in conjunction with failure analysis is to obtain the most comprehensive set of data in order to characterize the details of the damage and determine the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... changes due to work hardening or overheating, detect decarburization or surface contamination, and provide a host of other useful information. Because the damage to the component is generally small, hardness testing often can be considered nondestructive. Portable testers allow the analyst to obtain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006798
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... penetrant technique. It may be helpful to examine the fracture surface for the presence or absence of traces of penetrant. For further information, see the article “Nondestructive Evaluation Applications for Failure Analysis” in this Volume. Other applications include the analysis of contaminants and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... economy are well documented. For example, the importance of investigating failures was vividly illustrated in the pioneering efforts of the Wright Brothers in developing self-propelled flight. In fact, while Wilbur was traveling in France in 1908, Orville was conducting flight tests for the U.S. Army...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or wedge-shaped cracks at grain triple points • Reaction scales or internal precipitation • Some cold flow in last stages of failure Contributing factors • Load exceeded the strength of the part • Check for proper alloy and processing by hardness check or destructive testing, chemical analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... necessarily renders the component unfit for service. Thus, methods of assessing the condition of a component through nondestructive testing (NDT) are of great value. Sposito et al. ( Ref 13 ) provide a comprehensive review of available NDT techniques, including their advantages and disadvantages. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... failure analysis than the more exact instrumentation employed in SEMs, the technology is advancing and is worthy of note due to its capability for nondestructive analysis and application in the field. This article begins with information on the basis of the x-ray signal. This is followed by information on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... modes of adhesive wear including scoring, scuffing, seizure, and galling, and describes the processes involved in classic laboratory-type and standardized tests for the evaluation of adhesive wear. It includes information on standardized galling tests, twist compression, slider-on-flat-surface, load...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... tests that can be performed during an investigation, including visual examination, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, quantitative chemical analysis, metallography, hardness testing, mechanical testing such as impact and tensile testing, and nondestructive evaluation are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and chemical etching kit Dye penetrant kit Magnetic-particle inspection kit Simple chemical tests for plating and alloy identification Visual inspection assisted by optical microscopy and some nondestructive test methods that do not permanently alter the components may be possible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... microscope examinations can be performed. However, samples are typically large and require some sectioning. Different types of saws can be used for sectioning, depending on sample type and size. Nondestructive testing, if required, can be performed on the entire sample or on segments of the sample as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., cleaning of dangerous or toxic substances from the debris of a failure is necessary for the safety of the investigator. The practitioner should also keep in mind that many tests described as nondestructive are only relatively nondestructive. There are numerous investigations during which the analysts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Removal of coatings must be performed without modifying the surface or subsurface residual-stress state. Mechanical polishing or grinding modifies the residual stress at the surface and the subsurface and is not recommended. If mechanical surface preparation is required for other nondestructive testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... errors Fabrication/manufacturing errors Design errors—design, stress analysis, materials selection, quality (nondestructive testing) Today (2020), service or operation is the first suspect when a failure occurs. As noted earlier, most components and machines, even processes, have a certain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... analysis investigation can be found in the articles “ Examination of Damage and Material Evaluation ,” “ Nondestructive Evaluation Applications for Failure Analysis ,” “ Bulk and Microscale Composition Analysis ,” “ Microfractography and Metallography for Failure Analysis ,” and “ Mechanical Testing in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... dissolution (tribocorrosion) Characterization typically involves the worn surfaces (if they are not severely damaged after testing or the occurrence of failure), the subsurface regions (if nondestructive tests can be carried out), and the worn debris (if it can be collected as usual in tribological...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-related failures and in formulating preventive measures. Fig. 1 Forms of corrosion. Adapted from Ref 1 More detailed discussions of the fundamentals and mechanisms of corrosion are provided in the References listed at the end of this article and in Corrosion: Fundamentals, Testing, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... plan sampling and chemical analysis techniques while evidence in the subject parts is in the most pristine condition. During the course of an investigation, there is potential for incidental contamination, even during the nondestructive portion of the investigation, from handling, storage, and further...