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non-destructive localization

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of porosity, which may be either dispersed or localized. The frequency and/or severity of porosity is random from one assembly to the next. Porosity is defined as a group of small voids clustered together or in lines. The neutron radiograph shown in Fig. 4(a) confirms the presence of porosity in the bond...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001374
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... as welding atmosphere Considerable time requirements for executing the joint, exceeding by far the requirements of most other processes Increased capital costs with increasing component size, because a welding chamber becomes necessary Verification of proper joint execution by non-destructive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.9781627081900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... visual inspection, and non-invasive inspection. Inspection execution, risk-based inspection, competence assurance of inspection personnel, inspection coverage, inspection periodicity, inspection anomaly criteria, assessment of fitness, and reporting requirements, are also discussed. The article addresses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005857
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... Abstract Inspection involves two types of testing, namely, destructive and non-destructive. This article provides an overview of the various inspection plans, such as first-article inspection and periodic tests done by destructive metallurgical testing and the final inspection done...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... into heat in the top 10 to 100 μm (0.0004 to 0.004 in.) of the surface. The resulting temperature rise creates a local expansion of the material. If the heating laser pulse duration is short (10 to 100 ns), then the expansion will be in the frequency of ultrasound (1 to 10 MHz). The important feature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... associated with local crystallographic directions in grains. The boundary separating neighboring domains is called a domain wall, as shown in Fig. 3 . In iron, the angle between the magnetization saturation vectors, M s , of two neighboring domains determines whether 180° or 90° (non-180°) domain walls...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... need to have an awareness of how their legal obligations are defined. People who perform destructive testing on a component that has failed may sometimes be held accountable for the destruction of evidence on a personal level. Company employees need to learn to protect themselves. Investigators who...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... for inspection of previously inaccessible surfaces. References References 1. Carlomagno G.M. and Berardi P.G. , Unsteady Thermotopography in Non-Destructive Testing , Proc. III Infrared Information Exchange (St. Louis, MO), Warren C. , Ed., 1976 , p 33 – 40 2. Milne J.M...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006374
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... on the materials in contact, speed, and temperature, as well as the condition of contacting surfaces, that is, the brake pad/lining to the drum/rotor and the tire to the road. The friction and wear of these material pairs are determined by complex tribological mechanisms that are influenced by the non-steady...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... and information, www.imperial.ac.uk/non-destructive-evaluation/products-and-services/disperse 9. Silk M.G. and Bainton K.F. , The Propagation in Metal Tubing of Ultrasonic Wave Modes Equivalent to Lamb Waves , Ultrasonics , Vol 17 , 1979 , p 11 – 19 10.1016/0041-624X(79)90006-4 10...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002381
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... form) make a distinction between non-fail-safe and fail-safe structures (crack arrest or multiple load path). More stringent requirements apply to non-fail-safe structures. The military requirements (MIL-A-87221, MIL-A-83444, and MIL-STD-1530) go into great detail with regard to the assumptions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract This article focuses on the analysis of materials and mechanical- (or biomechanical-) based medical device failures. It reviews the failure analysis practices, including evidence receipt, cleaning, nondestructive examination, destructive examination, exemplars analysis, and device...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... generation process, the absorbed laser energy is converted into heat in the top 10 to 100 μm (0.0004 to 0.004 in.) of the surface. The resulting temperature rise creates a local expansion of the material. If the heating laser pulse duration is short (10 to 100 ns), then the expansion will be in the frequency...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... of the IWP. In general, the welding process presents the control engineer with two principal problems: In most cases, the relationship between the IWP and the DWP are non linear. The variables are highly coupled. The job of the welding engineer is to determine a set of IWP that will produce...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... TC3 49 mm TC8 83 mm The use of thermocouples is problematic because they have non-zero latency, non-zero thermal mass, and non-zero innate error, and require lead wires (and often a cavity through which the lead wires can pass) to connect to the data acquisition system. Hence, they cannot...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
.... Initially, non-destructive characterization procedures will be the focus. The first level of characterization involves information that may be obtained by direct visual inspection and measurement of the weld. A discussion of nondestructive evaluation follows. This encompasses techniques used to characterize...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of 1 cm, but it can be as small as 30 μm. Precision ∼5% relative or ∼5 MPa absolute, whichever is higher (in ideal laboratory conditions) Less precise information is obtained when portable x-ray equipment used for residual stress measurement of non-ideal structural components...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002355
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... the relative motion of two non-neighboring “cards” or slices. They showed that the local plastic shear strain in both slices (one positive and the other negative) can reach very high values within a relatively short number of cycles. These large plastic strains cause the continuous “squeezing out” or “sucking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... was first shown by Lord Rayleigh as a note in the proceedings of the Royal Society ( Ref 1 ) and was calculated as a limiting case applied to Lamb wave modes ( Ref 2 , 3 ). Rayleigh waves are found in nature at low (nonultrasonic) frequencies as the destructive component generated by earthquakes and have...