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non-cylindrical bending

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Deformation patterns in nonlubricated, non-isothermal hot forging. (a) Initial barreling. (b) Barreling and folding over. (c) Beginning of end face expansion. Source: 5 As deformation proceeds, severe inhomogeneity develops, and the growth of the end faces is attributed entirely to the folding over of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and its components are functions of their position on the cut surface. The possibility that the stresses σ and τ are functions of position on the surface must also be permitted (as in the stress field around a stress concentrator or a stress state in bending or torsion). In addition, if the surface is...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-electric crystal principle Rebound Mechanical Electronic (EQUO) method Source: P.F. Aplin, Classification and Solution of Portable Hardness-Testing Equipment, Non-Destructive Testing, Vol 1, Elsevier Science Publishers, 1989, p 683–688 The Brinell hardness test is basically simple...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.9781627081979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... are much higher than those for a nickel strip ( Ref 21 ). Some of the earliest applications of air-coupled ultrasonics were in the 1970?s when Luukkala et al. reported demonstrations of plate waves to provide a non-contact measurement on a paper web ( Ref 1 ). This approach was subsequently applied...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... factor, m , increases the defect region of the map. Source: Ref 25 Slip-line field analysis provides a geometric method for calculation of stress states in plastic deformation processes, particularly the hydrostatic stress state. While strictly applicable only to non-work-hardening material and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... understand a broader engineering failure. Note that some non-fracture-failure scenarios may ultimately lead to fracture. Wear processes, for example, can ultimately lead to fracture by galling and/or fretting fatigue. Other examples include fatigue crack initiation at surface pits from corrosion, cyclic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... the tempering process. This influence depends on whether they dissolve in ferrite and cementite, or whether they form what are called special carbides , which are non-iron-containing carbides, such as Cr 7 C 3 W 2 C, VC, and Mo 2 C. Atoms of alloying elements in the ε-carbide and cementite lattice...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.9781627081719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... etched layer may be required. To evaluate the appropriateness of the surface-preparation techniques applied and the surface condition of the component to XRD residual-stress measurements, a complete surface-condition evaluation (four-point bend test) must be performed on a coupon taken from the component...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... per component is quite dependent on the manufacturing history, specifications, and the material used, the cost of losses due to heat treatment is usually quite high, or at least non-negligible. The final hardening treatment losses are especially significant due to the cumulative nature of the losses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... describe the central bursting phenomenon during the wire drawing or extrusion of a non-strain-hardening material ( Ref 24 ). To validate this work, experiments were carried out at Lehigh University on AISI 1024 plain carbon steel bars. Drawing was carried out in dies having an 8° semicone angle, with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.9781627081955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Spindle Fast processing. No impingement of workpieces. Produces smooth finishes. Automation capability with robot reload Parts must be fixtured. Limited part sizes and geometries (typically used for cylindrical parts). Less versatile than other processes Source: Ref 4 Shot peening is the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... compositions of frits for enamels for cast iron Constituent Composition, wt% Groundcoats Cover coats Lead- bearing Non-lead- bearing Zirconium- opacified (a) Titania- opacified (a) Titania- opacified (b) SiO 2 77.7 63.4 28.0 51.4 44.80 B 2 O 3 6.8 10.9 8.8 9.6 13.14...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003056
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...–510 A.J. Moorhead and H.-E. Kim, Joining Oxide Ceramics, p 511–522 J.A. Pask and A.P. Tomsia, Wetting, Surface Energies, Adhesion, and Interface Reaction Thermodynamics, p 482–492 J. Steinberg, Metallizing, p 542–545 K. Suganuma, Joining Non-Oxide Ceramics, p 523–531 In most cases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... laid flat, they will tend to bend, or “potato chip,” with gears on the top and bottom of the load most prone to this type of distortion. This is due to differential cooling of the gears. In this case, the thermal mass of the grid retains heat, while the upper surface of the gear experiences the full...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005957
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... processes, so better units will promote tighter temperature control. In non-atmosphere-controlled furnaces, burners will fire directly into the furnace chamber, often called the retort. In controlled-atmosphere furnaces, the burners will be radiant tubes or a chamber design that otherwise isolates the...