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nodularity structure

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006346
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
...Abstract Abstract The main factors affecting the mechanical properties of compacted graphite irons both at room temperatures and at elevated temperatures are composition, structure (nodularity and matrix), and section size. This article presents a comparison between some properties of flake...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... test procedure) to avoid plastic deformation during the splitting operation. Mechanical and Physical Properties Similar to ductile iron, CGI can be produced with varying pearlite contents to suit the intended application. Within the specified CGI nodularity range, the matrix structure can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... the mechanical properties of CG irons both at room temperatures and at elevated temperatures are composition, structure (nodularity and matrix), and section size. The article also discusses the applications of CG irons that stem from their relative intermediate position between FG and SG irons. The tables...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
...Abstract Abstract Ductile iron, also known as nodular iron or spheroidal graphite iron, is second to gray iron in the amount of casting produced. This article discusses the common grades of ductile iron that differ primarily by the matrix structure that contains the spherical graphite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
...% in a 25 mm diameter test bar. In a complex casting such as a cylinder block or head, the higher nodularity structure will almost certainly lead to porosity defects. Fig. 9 An addition of 0.08% inoculant can cause the CGI nodularity to increase, leading toward increased porosity risk. (a) After base...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... rating scale. For this purpose, some studies have introduced a negative nodularity range, spanning from 0 to −5% nodularity. A value of −1% nodularity corresponds to a compacted graphite microstructure with approximately 20% of the structure being occupied by flake graphite, while −5% represents a fully...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... between that of FG (lowest) and SG (highest) irons, this is not true. Figure 7 shows the influence of nodularity on the structure of chill pins cast in air set molds ( Ref 15 ). It can be seen that the highest chilling tendency is achieved for irons with nodularities between 6 and 64%. In other words...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005970
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... to 6% Si have provided good service, and low cost, in many elevated-temperature applications. These irons, whether gray or nodular, provide good oxidation resistance and stable ferritic matrix structures that will not go through a phase change at temperatures up to 815 °C (1500 °F). The elevated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... approaches for preparing ductile cast iron specimens with a wide range of phases and constituents as well as variations in graphite morphologies. A wide variety of matrix microstructures can be obtained in ductile irons. Examples are presented using a variety of etchants. Control of the nodularity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
..., distribution, and morphology and their growth pattern to obtain different final graphite morphologies (lamellar/flake, vermicular/compacted, or nodular/spheroidal) could be influenced by modification and/or inoculation treatments. Modification Modification treatment of the iron melt mainly influences...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...%. However, the fatigue strength still remained at 75% of the value for the optimum graphite structure. Accordingly, the endurance ratio increased from 0.31 to 0.37. Influence of decreasing nodularity on tensile and rotating-beam properties of pearlitic ductile iron Table 8 Influence of decreasing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
..., and the result is shrinkage between the eutectic cells. In many foundries, the microstructure shows even-sized nodules (accounting for the fact that the section cuts through nodules in two dimensions). Many still consider this to be a good structure, even though the iron is prone to shrinkage. Nodularizers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... I.L. , Computer Simulation of the Structure Formed during Solidification of Cast Iron , The Physical Metallurgy of Cast Iron , Aug 29–31, 1984 ( Stockholm, Sweden ), 1985 , p 273 – 284 14. Lundbäck E. and Svensson I.L. , Prediction of Properties of Nodular Cast Iron...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... on (a) tensile properties and (b) creep resistance of 4% Si ductile iron at 705 °C (1300 °F) Fig. 2 Micrograph of a 4Si-Mo ductile iron showing nodular graphite structure. Original magnifi-cation: 400× Silicon lowers the eutectic carbon content, which must be controlled to avoid graphite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... that are dynamically loaded. As with other mechanical properties, fatigue strength depends on nodularity, so that the fatigue limit increases with decreasing average nodule diameter ( Ref 1 , 2 , 5 ). Designation of the matrix structure is specified in ISO 945-3. A fully ferritic matrix gives good ductility...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... additions of cerium and other RE elements. However, excessive additions of neutralizing elements can in themselves degrade nodularity. Trace Element Testing and Control Cast iron producers use a combination of tools to control the effects of minor elements on the structure and properties of cast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... (nodule alignment); reduces range between stable and metastable eutectic temperature; promotes hydrogen pinholes when Al is present Pig irons, some ferroalloys, structural steel scrap, enamels and paints Vanadium … … 0.03 0.04 … Carbides resistant to annealing; reduces range between stable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses criteria that can be used for the classification of cast iron: fracture aspect, graphite shape, microstructure of the matrix, commercial designation, and mechanical properties. It addresses the main factors of influence on the structure of cast iron...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... that promotes nodularizing of the graphite during solidification. Molten metal treatments for cast iron also include fluxing and inoculation. Fluxes are inorganic compounds such as limestone and calcium fluoride that refine the molten metal by removing dissolved gases and various impurities that may...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... properties depend on the nodularity of graphite, as shown in Fig. 13 . Figure 14 shows microstructures containing estimated graphite nodularities of 99, 80, and 50%. Nodule count is also important. Structures showing four different levels of nodule count are shown in Fig. 15 . Fig. 13 Tensile...