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nodular graphite

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... strength measured in MPa of CG irons ( Ref 16 ). Fig. 23 Fatigue ( S - N ) curves for ferritic, pearlitic, and higher-nodularity compacted graphite (CG) ( Table 7 ) from rotating-bending tests. Arrows indicate specimens did not fail. SG, spheroidal graphite. (a) Source: Ref 25 . (b) Source: 27...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... results in lower nodularity. At constant CE , higher silicon increases nodularitiy. Figure 2 shows the optimum carbon and silicon content. The optimum CE must be selected as a function of section size. For a given section size, too high a CE will result in graphite flotation, as in the case of...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005326
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Malleable iron is a cast ferrous metal that is initially produced as white cast iron and is then heat treated to convert the carbon-containing phase from iron carbide to a nodular form of graphite called temper carbon. This article provides a discussion on the melting practices, heat...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.../growth rate ratio, G / R , and/or cooling rate, G · R , a variety of graphite shapes can solidify as part of the austenite-graphite eutectic. Basically, they are as follows: Flake (actually plate) graphite (FG) Compacted/vermicular graphite (CG) Coral graphite Spheroidal (nodular...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... requiring corrosion resistance or strength and oxidation resistance in high-temperature service. They are commonly produced in both flake graphite and nodular graphite versions. Those alloys used in applications requiring corrosion resistance are the nickel-alloyed (13 to 36% Ni) gray and ductile irons...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... all ferrous casting alloys. DUCTILE IRON, also called nodular iron or spheroidal graphite (SG) iron, has a chemical composition very similar to that of gray iron. However, in ductile iron, the graphite solidifies in the form of tiny spheres ( Fig. 10 ). As this figure shows...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... resulted from the addition of a small amount of magnesium to a low-sulfur-content molten iron. At approximately the same time, Henton Morrough at the British Cast Iron Research Foundation found that a small amount of cerium would spheroidize graphite in cast tile iron is also referred to as nodular or...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003110
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... strength and hardness than are available in ferritic malleable iron. Martensitic malleable iron is produced by quenching and tempering pearlitic malleable iron. Malleable iron, like ductile iron, possesses considerable ductility and toughness because of its combination of nodular graphite and a low...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... nodularizing of the graphite during solidification. Molten metal treatments for cast iron also include fluxing and inoculation. Fluxes are inorganic compounds such as limestone and calcium fluoride that refine the molten metal by removing dissolved gases and various impurities that may be detrimental to the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... true nodular graphite but that are still better than the properties of gray iron of similar composition. Cooling rate is the variable chiefly affected by section size. The cooling rate, in turn, affects both the size of the graphite nodules and the microstructure of the matrix. The heavier the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003106
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... graphite phase. Gray iron has flake-shaped graphite, ductile iron has nodular or spherically shaped graphite, compacted graphite iron (also called vermicular graphite iron) is intermediate between these two, and malleable iron has irregularly shaped globular or “popcorn-shaped” graphite that is formed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... situations may develop in pressure-containing applications. Graphitic corrosion is observed only in gray cast irons. In both nodular and malleable cast iron, the lack of graphite flakes provides a more favorable anode/cathode ratio and no network to hold the corrosion products together. By maximizing the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... nodular form (ductile iron) or flake form (gray iron). See the Section “Cast Irons” in this Handbook for compositions of these high-alloy irons that contain from 18 to 37% Ni. Conventional hardness measurements on cast irons always indicate lower values than the true hardness of the metal...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... pearlitic microstructure; the machine housing has a ferrite plus pearlite matrix with graphite flakes; and the jaw crusher microstructure contains martensite and cementite. cast irons material selection mechanical properties microstructure steels THE PROPERTIES of irons and steels are linked...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... chiefly on high alloy content, and resistance to softening depends on the initial microstructure plus the stability of the carbon-containing phase. Heat-resistant irons are usually ferritic or austenitic as-cast; carbon exists predominantly as graphite, either in flake or nodular form, which subdivides...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Microstructures of ductile irons. All contain spheroidal graphite. Nital etch; 500×. (a) 100% ferrite; 170 HB. (b) 50% ferrite, 50% pearlite; 207 HB. (c) Spheroidite; 265 HB Fig. 4 Microstructure of malleable irons. All contain nodular graphite or temper carbon. Nital etch; 500×. (a) Ferritic malleable...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... encourage a microstructure suitable for the section size of the casting and the strength level required. In ductile iron, sufficient carbon and silicon concentrations must be maintained within controlled ranges for proper production of the nodular form of graphite and control of the matrix structure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...×. Fig. 66 : Fracture surface of normalized low-nodularity iron. Presence of nonspheroidal graphite fosters the creation of long ridges and valleys. These graphitic “lumps” apparently upset and redirect the crack plane. SEM, 550×. Fig. 67 : Austempered ductile iron, with a microstructure of bainite and...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... their free energy of formation. Furthermore, the alloys used to produce the nodular graphite found in ductile iron contain considerable amounts of silicon and are low in density, which allows them to float on ladle surfaces rather than reacting completely. These observations help to explain how dross...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... ductile iron fatigue properties fracture toughness hardness properties materials selection mechanical properties physical properties tensile properties shear and torsional properties DUCTILE IRON, also known as nodular iron or spheroidal graphite iron, is second to gray iron in the amount of...