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nitric acid

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... corrosive media include: hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, hydrofluoric acid, hydrobromic acid, nitric acid, organic acids, salts, seawater, and alkalis. The modes of high-temperature corrosion include oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, sulfidation, nitridation, corrosion by halogens...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... hafnium in specific media, namely, water, steam, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, alkalis, organics, molten metals, and gases. Forms of corrosion, namely, galvanic corrosion, crevice corrosion, and pitting corrosion are included. The article explains the corrosion of hafnium alloys such as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.../gal) chromium trioxide, 60 g/L (8 oz/gal) sulfuric acid, and 60 g/L (8 oz/gal) hydro-fluoric acid in water, used at room temperature in an immersion system. Another solution used frequently for cleaning stainless steel is a solution of nitric acid (10 to 50 vol%) and hydrofluoric acid (1 to 3 vol%) in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and strip. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is also used for special purposes, such as etching before galvanizing or tinning. Nitric-hydrofluoric acid mixtures are used to pickle stainless steel. Hydrofluoric acid is sometimes used when pickling castings to remove sand. Mixtures of hydrochloric and sulfuric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... sections of nitric acid and fertilizer production facilities. Niobium has also been considered for use in the pharmaceutical industry, where corrosion of any level is undesirable. Niobium has also been used in the evaporators in the chrome plating industry to resist the hot, concentrated chromic acid media...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...-product HCl Chemical HCl absorbers … Mono-sodium glutamate Glutamic hydrochloride production Chemical, food Bayonet heaters, condensers, complete plants … Muriatic acid pickling Heating, pickling tanks Steel, metal working Coils … Nitric acid Distillation, recovery Chemical Bayonet...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... process ( Ref 13 ). It is a weaker acid than sulfuric acid and as such is frequently used in combination with other acids. For the dissolution of mineral samples, phosphoric acid can be mixed with sulfuric acid, hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, and perchloric acid. Nitric acid is the most commonly used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... as shot blasting. The final step, however, involves elimination of scale and other surface defects through removal of the normal, protective oxide layer and 25 to 40 μm (0.001 to 0.0015 in.) of the substrate metal by pickling the surface in a nitric-hydrofluoric acid (HNO 3 -HF) bath. The...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in this article; a brief description of applicable finishing and coating processes is also provided. An alternative method of removing scale from stainless steels and heat-resisting alloys is by immersion in an aqueous solution containing about 10 vol% nitric acid and 1 to 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... surface. It is good practice to remove particle contamination with a nitric acid pickle to prevent degradation of corrosion resistance. A 20-min soak in 50% nitric acid solution at ambient temperature will dissolve embedded or smeared iron particles, but it will not remove silica or aluminum oxide. When...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... hydrochloric acid (HCl), H 2 SO 4 and phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ). Chromium additions impart improved resistance to oxidizing media such as nitric (HNO 3 ) and chromic (H 2 CrO 4 ) acids. Improved resistance to hot H 3 PO 4 has also been shown. Chromium also improves resistance to high-temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... the nitric-hydrofluoric acid cleaning process described later in this section. When thinner sections such as sheet or plate are subjected to abrasive blasting on one side for an extended length of time without being turned over, the thermal stress caused by the temperature difference across the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... removal from solution. Chromic acid plus nitric acid solution CrO 3 360–480 g/L (3–4 lb/gal), HNO 3 5% total volume All Aluminum Immersion Nitric acid solution 50–78% HNO 3 34 ± 6 110 ± 10 Maximum allowable immersion time, 20 min Note: Heavy metals plus stripping chemicals require...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...-temperature exposure in dilute hydroiodic acid (HI). Nitric acid (HNO 3 ) that contains traces of nitrous acid attacks silver vigorously. Hot, concentrated (60%) sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) also attacks silver rapidly, as does 95% acid at room temperature. Phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) can be handled at all...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Natural gas (d) E E E E E E E E E Nickel chloride F F P F F F F F F Nickel sulfate F F P F F F F F F Nitric acid P P P P P P P P P Oleic acid G G F G G G G G G Oxalic acid (g) E E P P E E E E E Oxygen (h) E E E E E E E E E...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... HClO 2 and is readily attacked by HClO 3 . Sulfurous acid (H 2 SO 3 ) attacks tin, but sodium acid sulfite (NaHSO 3 ) is noncorrosive. Pyrosulfuric acid (H 2 S 2 O 7 ) and chlorosulfonic acid (SO 2 ClOH) react rapidly with tin; nitric acid (HNO 3 ) reacts rapidly with tin over a wide range of...
Book Chapter

By A. Sato
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Commercial zinc plating is accomplished by a number of distinctively different systems: cyanide baths, alkaline noncyanide baths, and acid chloride baths. This article focuses on the composition, advantages, disadvantages, operating parameters, and applications of each of the baths. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., brackish, and potable waters. Environments to be avoided include nitric acid (HNO 3 ); some metallic salts, such as ferric chloride (FeCl 3 ) and chromic acid (H 2 CrO 4 ); moist, chlorinated hydrocarbons; and moist HN 3 . Aeration can result in accelerated corrosion in many media that appear to be...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and lead-base alloys grouped according to nominal chemical composition. The properties of lead that make it useful in a wide variety of applications are also discussed. The largest use of lead is in lead-acid storage batteries. Other applications include ammunition, cable sheathing, cast products such...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... shape, required surface finish, and allowable loss of gage or dimension. However, abrasive cleaning can remove some metal and degrade surface finishes. Therefore, flash pickling is used more often than abrasive cleaning to remove tarnish. A typical flash-pickling formula uses nitric acid (1.41 sp gr...