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nickel-chromium white iron

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... austenitization, quenching, tempering, annealing, and stress relieving. abrasion resistance annealing austenitization chromium-molybdenum iron crushing grinding heat treatment high-alloy white cast iron high-chromium white iron microstructure nickel-chromium white iron quenching tempering...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... treatment to develop proper balance between resistance to abrasion and toughness needed to withstand repeated impact. This article provides a brief discussion on the heat treatment, mechanical properties, and chemical compositions of high-alloy white cast irons such as nickel-chromium white irons and high...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article presents a discussion on the melting, pouring, and shakeout practices; composition control; molds, patterns, and casting design; heat treatment; and applications of different classes of nickel-chromium white irons and high-chromium white irons. iron castings heat...
Book Chapter

By Charles V. White
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001002
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... utilization. Manganese, chromium, nickel, vanadium, and copper can also be used to strengthen cast irons. In many irons a combination of elements will provide the greatest increase in strength. To develop resistance to the softening effect of heat and protect against oxidation, chromium is the most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... containing magnesium, such as nickel-magnesium or Mg-Fe-Si. Nickel-magnesium alloys are most often used when nickel-bearing grades of ductile iron are produced, such as Ni-Resist, or as a means to add magnesium with minimal silicon input to iron subject to magnesium losses during holding in an automated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005945
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... Foundry Society The presence of manganese and alloying elements such as chromium, tin, and uncombined sulfur promotes the retention of carbon in the matrix in constituents containing iron carbide, even with very slow cooling through the critical range. Minor elements, such as phosphorus and sulfur...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... white cast irons fall into three major groups determined by their chromium content along with the needs of other alloy elements, such as nickel and/or molybdenum: Class I: The nickel-chromium or Ni-Hard white irons that contain a substantial amount of nickel but relatively low chromium. The...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005332
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., nickel, beryllium, chromium, and iron. The article discusses minor alloying additions, including antimony, bismuth, selenium, manganese, and phosphorus. Copper alloys can be cast by many processes, including sand casting, permanent mold casting, precision casting, high-pressure die casting, and low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Ni Cr Mo Cu Abrasion-resistant white irons Low-carbon white iron (d) 2.2–2.8 0.2–0.6 0.15 0.15 1.0–1.6 1.5 1.0 0.5 (e) CP High-carbon, low-silicon white iron 2.8–3.6 0.3–2.0 0.30 0.15 0.3–1.0 2.5 3.0 1.0 (e) CP Martensitic nickel-chromium iron 2.5–3.7 1.3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Nickel alloys can be divided into four groups: high-nickel alloys, nickel-copper alloys, nickel-chromium alloys, and nickel-iron-chromium alloys. Alloys within each composition group that has similar surface conditions are pickled in the same solutions using the same procedures. This...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006332
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... A532 specification consist of three classes and two major groups. The nickel-chromium white irons (class I), commonly referred to as Ni-Hard irons, contain 3 to 7% Ni and approximately 1.5 to 11% Cr. The second group, the high-chromium white irons, contain 11 to 30% Cr and up to 3.0% Mo, which is...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... pearlite. The minor elements normally used in gray iron alloying are chromium, copper, nickel, and molybdenum. Alloying practices vary considerably, depending mainly on the method of melting, the composition and product form of the alloy being added, the amount of iron being alloyed (the entire charge or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... glyceregia (see also Fig. 14 , 40 and 96 Nital can be also used for revealing the carbide morphology in the microstructure of chromium or chromium-nickel irons when the carbon and chromium content promotes solidification of eutectic carbides. When the microstructure of a high-chromium white iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... sticking up from the softer austenitic matrix. Original magnification: 400× The DFI and DIC methods also can be used for revealing the details of microstructures in alloyed irons, for example, a chromium-nickel iron after heat treatment, which were barely visible after etching with nital. Figures 50...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0009206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... (18% Ni, 5% Si). For corrosion resistance, irons with high chromium (up to 28%), nickel (up to 18%), and silicon (up to 15%) are used. For a comprehensive discussion on the mechanical and physical properties of special cast irons see Ref 17 . Historically, the first classification of cast iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... resistance, irons with high chromium (up to 28%), nickel (up to 18%), and silicon (up to 15%) are used. Additional information on this subject can be found in the Division on “High-Alloy Iron Castings” in this Volume. Historically, the first classification of cast iron was based on its fracture. Two...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005326
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... copper (max 1.0%), nickel (max 0.8%), and molybdenum (max 0.5%) are also sometimes present. When the alloy elements are not used, then all other elements besides carbon, silicon, manganese, and sulfur should be called trace elements. Table 1 Chemical composition of malleable iron Element...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
.... Higher cooling rates favor the LG-to-CG-to-SG transition. All elements decrease the surface energy of liquid iron-carbon alloys. However, while nickel, copper, and silicon slightly reduce the surface energy, calcium, magnesium, cerium, sulfur, selenium, and tellurium have a much stronger effect...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... given in Table 1 . Small amounts of chromium (0.01 to 0.03%), boron (0.0020%), copper (∼1.0%), nickel (0.5 to 0.8%), and molybdenum (0.35 to 0.5%) are also sometimes present. Table 1 Typical compositions for malleable iron Element Composition, % Ferritic Pearlitic Total carbon 2.2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005942
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... pearlitic). Other alloying elements include nickel, copper, molybdenum, and chromium. The heat treatment of gray irons can considerably alter the matrix microstructure with little or no effect on the size and shape of the graphite achieved during casting. The matrix microstructures resulting from heat...