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neutron irradiation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... Abstract Damage to steels from neutron irradiation affects the properties of steels and is an important factor in the design of safe and economical components for fission and fusion reactors. This article discusses the effects of high-energy neutrons on steels. The effects of damage caused...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... embrittlement, strain-age and aluminum nitride embrittlement, thermal embrittlement, quench cracking, 475 deg C and sigma phase embrittlement (in FeCr alloys), temper embrittlement, and embrittlement caused by neutron irradiation. In addition, the article covers stress-corrosion cracking along with properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... specimen did not fracture at a normalized impact energy of ∼4000 kJ/m 2 . Source: Ref 94 Fig. 25 J c as a function of neutron exposure for base metals irradiated at intermediate temperatures. Values of dJ / da (in MPa) are provided in parentheses. Source: Ref 29 , 42 , 43 , 47 , 85...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article is an atlas of fractographs that helps in understanding the causes and mechanisms of fracture of iron-base superalloys and in identifying and interpreting the morphology of fracture surfaces. The fractographs illustrate the neutron irradiation effect, fracture mode...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... particles and neutrons) emitted by the neutron-induced radioisotopes are also very penetrating and, for most materials, suffer little attenuation in escaping from the interiors of samples weighing several grams. The NAA method most commonly used involves irradiation of a sample using low-energy neutrons...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001748
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... method most commonly used involves irradiation of the sample using slow neutrons in a reactor, followed by observation of the γ-rays emitted from the sample by radioactive isotopes formed through capture of neutrons by the sample elements. Individual γ-rays can be identified with specific elements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Fig. 5 Dependence of irradiation-assisted stress-corrosion cracking on fast neutron fluence for (a) creviced control blade sheath in high conductivity boiling water reactors (BWRs) ( Ref 30 ) and (b) as measured in slow strain rate tests at 3.7×10 7 s −1 on preirradiated type 304 stainless steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Concerning Corrosion under Irradiation of Zr Alloys , Zirconium in the Nuclear Industry, 13th International Symposium , STP 1423, ASTM , 2002 , p 20 – 29 19. Garde A.M. , Smith G.P. , and Pirek R.C. , Effect of Hydride Precipitate Localization and Neutron Fluence on the Ductility...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... used to study heterogeneities in unstable metallic solutions known as Guinier-Preston (G-P) zones ( Ref 1 ). More recently, SAXS and SANS have been used to study the heterogeneities in metallic glasses, emphasizing the effects of thermal annealing and neutron irradiation in terms of their number...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... (PWR) nuclear power station Fig. 14 Summary of irradiation-assisted stress-corrosion cracking (IASCC) in light water reactors and associated metallurgical changes in austenitic stainless steels as a function of neutron irradiation in n/cm 2 ( E ≥1 MeV) or displacements per atom (dpa). EFPY...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... includes both iron-based and nickel-base superalloys. (e) Total includes two sulfur dot maps obtained by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy ( Fig. 825 and 827 ). (f) Total includes a graph of fracture toughness versus neutron irradiation that contains three superimposed electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Evolution of EAC incidents in boiling water reactors Table 1 Evolution of EAC incidents in boiling water reactors Component and mode of failure Alloy Time period Fuel cladding, irradiation-assisted SCC 304 1960s Furnace-sensitized safe ends, IGSCC 304, 182, 600 ↓ Weld...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
.... Particles—such as neutrons, protons, or deuterons—are accelerated and then used to induce nuclear reactions in the material of the test piece. The activation method, the irradiated material, and the applied activation energy determine the total activity of the sample, the area where radioactive isotopes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005711
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... under the extreme conditions of high heat flux, high mechanical loads, high-energy neutron and alpha particle radiation, and chemical/corrosion interactions. The use of coatings to separate the performance of the component into that of the bulk material and that of the surface coating helps make...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... irradiation. The combination of high corrosion resistance in nitric acid and high neutron absorption cross section allows hafnium to be used in spent fuel reprocessing plants that utilize nitric acid. The unique properties of hafnium help avoid criticality in this application ( Ref 17 ). While hafnium has...
Book Chapter

By W.L. Johnson
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... involves the use of an external driving force to raise the enthalphy (and free energy) of an initially single-phase crystalline material. Irradiation of a crystal by high-energy particles (ions, electrons, and neutrons) has been shown to be an effective means of accomplishing this. The crystal is held...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract Neutrons are a principal tool for the study of lattice vibrational spectra in materials. This article provides a detailed account of fission and spallation methods of neutron production that are capable of producing sufficient intensity to be useful in neutron scattering research...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in the periodic table have either naturally occurring radioactive isotopes or isotopes that can be made radioactive by irradiation with a stream of neutrons in the core of the nuclear reactor. However, only certain isotopes are extensively used for radiography ( Table 2 ). Table 2 Characteristics of γ-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and neutron diffraction methods calculate the residual stress from the elastic strain measured in the crystal lattice without altering the part. Mechanical methods calculate the residual stress from the change in strain relaxed (or dimensional change) caused by sectioning, slitting, drilling, or trepanning...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627081788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8