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neutron diffraction

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides a brief introduction to neutron diffraction as well as its state-of-the-art capabilities. The discussion covers the general principles of the neutron, neutron-scattering theory, generation of neutrons, types of incident radiation, and purposes of single-crystal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... emission spectroscopy, high-temperature combustion, and inert gas fusion. This is followed by a section on techniques for determining the atomic structure of crystals, namely X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, and electron diffraction. Types of electron microscopies most commonly used for...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... primary types of analyses and their uses are described in the following sections, along with information about the threshold sensitivity and precision, limitations, sample requirements, and capabilities of related techniques. Neutron diffraction residual stress measurement is based on the same...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and neutron diffraction methods calculate the residual stress from the elastic strain measured in the crystal lattice without altering the part. Mechanical methods calculate the residual stress from the change in strain relaxed (or dimensional change) caused by sectioning, slitting, drilling, or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... some information may be obtained on amorphous solids and liquids using the pair distribution function method or complementary techniques (see the articles “Small-Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering” and “Micro X-Ray Diffraction” in this Division). Similar or complementary information often can be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... determinations, unless complementary neutron diffraction data also are available. Fig. 9 Electron density map of oxalic acid based on high-resolution single-crystal diffraction data. The C–C bonding electrons (blue arrow) and the oxygen lone pair (green arrows) are clearly resolved. With...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...-rays to penetrate. Using laboratory x-rays, metallic samples typically must be less than 0.1 mm (0.004 in.) thick. The use of synchrotron radiation or neutrons can overcome this limitation. Figure 2 shows a back-reflection pinhole camera. If white radiation is used, the camera is usually referred...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... Diffraction is the coherent scattering of electromagnetic waves (e.g., light or x-rays) or moving subatomic particles (e.g., electrons or neutrons) by materials containing structural units with sizes similar to the wavelengths of the impinging radiation. Crystalline solids are regular periodic structures made...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... the compliance technique also indicates subsurface tensile-stress magnitudes >200 MPa, while surface compressive stresses were approximately 160 MPa (23 ksi) ( Ref 36 ). Neutron diffraction measurements have the great benefit of being very penetrating and nondestructive (although a residual-stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... , 56 Hardness Microhardness 58 Superficial hardness 4 Ultrasonic signal 4 Residual stresses Barkhausen noise analysis 4 , 24 Eddy current Hole drilling 59 , 60 , 61 Interferometry 62 Layer removal 27 , 30 , 42 Neutron diffraction 26 , 63...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006166
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... … … … NdH x 0.7 to ? cF 12 Fm 3 m CaF 2 Nd 2 H 5 (b) (c) ∼1.6 tI 28 tI40 I 4 1 md I41md … … (a) High-temperature phase; exists between 680 and 880 °C. (b) Not shown in the phase diagram. (c) Ideal stoichiometry; structure based on neutron-diffraction studies on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., but conventional elastoplasticity is treated as the flow rule ( Ref 8 ). It is common practice to use such a model when studying the operative deformation mechanisms during the elastic-plastic transition and the intergranluar strains that arise, measured by neutron or synchrotron x-ray diffraction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... lie at the end of a continuum, where the density of defects becomes so high the material no longer exhibits the long-range structural order required to produce discrete features in x-ray, electron, or neutron diffraction. Organic semiconductors essentially lie between the amorphous and polycrystalline...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... chemical analysis methods that may reveal specific bonding information useful for indicating phases can also be used. The most common analytical tool for phase identification is crystal diffraction, which employs x-rays, high-energy electrons, or neutrons that undergo wave interference with the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... (extrusion axis perpendicular to the plane of the page). (a) Basal (00.2) plane normals oriented perpendicular to extrusion axis. (b) ⟨10.0⟩ directions parallel to the extrusion axis. (c) ⟨10.1⟩ directions parallel to the extrusion axis. Data obtained by neutron diffraction at the Los Alamos Neutron Science...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... confidence in the fidelity of simulation. This is true both when new methods are under development and when new applications emerge. Experiments involving in situ loading of specimens in facilities capable of x-ray and neutron diffraction measurements provide data at the scale of crystals. Elastic (lattice...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627081788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... Observations from x-ray, neutron diffraction, and sound velocity measurements on liquid binary iron-carbon alloys at temperatures approximately 20 °C (35 °F) above the liquidus indicate that for up to 1.8% C, the distance between nearest iron neighbors, r I , as well as the number of nearest neighbors, N I...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006652
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... chromatography/mass spectrometry; LEISS, low-energy ion-scattering spectroscopy; MFS, molecular fluorescence spectroscopy; NAA, neutron activation analysis; NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance; OM, optical metallography; RS, Raman spectroscopy; SAXS, small-angle x-ray scattering; SEM, scanning electron microscopy...