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near-net shape manufacturing

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... chamber or injection system to the die impression. The gating system must be designed to permit the attainment of cavity pressurization without reducing cycle time by its own mass and solidification time. It must also be of minimum size to maximize the gross-to-net-weight ratio and to minimize trimming...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.9781627082907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Powder forging is an extension of the conventional press and sinter powder metallurgy process, which is recognized as an effective technology for producing a variety of parts to net or near-net shape. This article focuses on the material considerations, such as powder characteristics...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... continuous casting of steel. It reviews the trends in the steel industry, such as near-net shape casting, the use of tundish metallurgy, and pouring stream protection. The article discusses the use and capabilities of different molds for steel continuous casting. These include thin-wall tube-type molds...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... better near-term and end results. Fig. 9 Comparison of the surface finish of sapphire (Al 2 O 3 ) ground by two different production techniques. (a) Surface grinding, which produced cracks visible on surface. (b) Creep-feed grinding, which yielded no detectable cracks While the machine tool...
Book Chapter

By Erhard Klar
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... shape during handling prior to sintering hot isostatic pressing A process combining temperature and high pressure gas to densify a material into a net-shape component using a pressure-tight outer envelope metal injecting molding A process in which a mixture of a metal powder and plastic...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... dimensional accuracy and surface finish for precision parts having complex contours that would be difficult and expensive to machine. High-pressure die casting and its variations also provide near-net-shape castings but require much more expensive tooling so are generally warranted only for high annual volume...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... polymerizable additive (such as a monomer) to form a slurry similar to a casting slip. The slip is poured into a mold, where polymerization is initiated before the powder has time to settle out. Advantages of this method include near-net-shape forming, high green density, and low organic levels. Materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... are generally used for the hot extrusion of steels, titanium alloys, high-strength aluminum alloys such as 2 xxx and 7 xxx alloys, and other metals. The applications of extrusions are constantly increasing due to the ability of the process to produce net bulk shapes in long lengths, often...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... development of an ultrafine grain structure in the preform material. Advanced roll forming can provide near-net shapes at lower cost compared to forging and ring rolling because of the elimination of dies and the ability to utilize a given set of rollers for multiple geometries. Because of the generally high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... strength and toughness. It is a near-net shape. There is no parting line, and all that may be required is a trim to tubular sections. Surface finish is good. Impacts have zero draft angles, and tolerances are tight. Once impacted, sections can be treated in the same manner as any other piece of wrought...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... such as is possible in high-pressure die castings. Therefore, they are superior to die castings in soundness and pressure tightness and are sometimes chosen for superior quality benefits. However, die castings achieve nearer net shape, require less draft, and can be produced at a lower cost. The lower...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... ceramics and refractory metals. A major benefit of using P/M molds is the ability to produce near net shape cavities directly by HIP. Hot isostatic pressing has great potential for forging dies. In this rapid prototyping process, the CAD file of the object is obtained, and a slice file is created with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003986
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... control can cause overloading of the press when the billets are oversize and lack of fill when the billets are undersize. Fig. 4 Tool set for flashless forging Some forgers have been making spur gears with near-net teeth for some time ( Ref 5 ). In the early work, when the technical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... machining by the user, and the term near-net precision titanium forging is defined as a product requiring some metal removal (typically accomplished in a single machining operation) by the user. Whether fabrication of net or near-net titanium alloy precision forgings is commercially successful in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003999
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... large strains to be uniformly distributed within a bulk workpiece. Isothermal forging is used to superplastically forge nickel-base alloys into very near-net-shape components, such as a variety of complex turbine engine disks and other high-temperature aircraft engine products. The key to successful...
Book Chapter

By Robert Bolin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... distribute the available material where it is most needed. The operator can select to have any excess material distributed to the ID, OD, or split it between by rolling to the mean diameter. Persistent market pressure for near-net-shape rings, wider application of statistical process control techniques...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005186
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... development of binders for the production of chemically bonded cores and molds is being directed toward increasing productivity as well as achieving the dimensional repeatability necessary to meet the new challenges of net shape and near-net shape casting requirements ( Table 6 ). Many patterns were made of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... functionally-graded implants representing a better balance of properties and manufactured via novel additive manufacturing technologies based on near-net shape processing. Some specific problems associated with currently-used implant manufacturing processes and the consequent compromise in properties are...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... section and near the bottom of the wall, or at the top of the wall. A parting line at any point above the center of the bottom web but below the top of the wall can disrupt the grain flow and cause defects in the forging. Because the dies move only in a straight line, and because the forging must be...