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nanoscale environmental effects

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, nitridation, carbonitridation, sulfidation, and chloridation. Several other potential degradation processes, namely hot corrosion, hydrogen interactions, molten salts, aging, molten sand, erosion-corrosion, and environmental cracking, are discussed under boiler tube...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... relaxation also appears to affect the nanoscale corrosion processes of the glasses. Hydrogen embrittlement and SCC have been observed in several glassy alloys, but the exact damage mechanisms remain unclear. It is likely that the effects of alloying additions (particularly phosphorus for hydrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... describes the effects that the structure of raw ceramic materials and green products and processing parameters have on the ultimate structure and properties of the processed piece. The effects that trace chemistry and processing parameters have on glass properties are discussed. The article describes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article discusses the basic principles of and chemical effects in Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), covering various factors affecting the quantitative analyses of AES. The discussion covers instrumentation and sophisticated electronics typically used in AES for data acquisition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... a number of factors, including greatly increased surface area and/or quantum mechanical effects. It is important to recognize that most coating polymers, such as epoxy, alkyd, urethane, and so on, which function as the primary binding material within a coating, have nanoscale dimensions. In this...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... Organization (IMO) is requiring proven ballast and cargo oil tank coating systems. Many countries are implementing ever-tightening environmental controls restricting the amount of volatile organic compounds, or solvent, that marine coatings can contain. Green technology, particularly with regard to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... functional perspective, semiconductors form the active material components of structures whose electrical behavior, such as resistance, can be controlled through external stimulation, such as the gate voltage applied to a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) or visible light...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... 100,000× or more are possible by modern SEMs. Scanning electron microscopes produce nanoscale-resolution imaging and mapping because the electron beam is focused to an ~1 to 10 nm sized probe. However, issues consider regarding electron probe size and depth sensitivity are the influence of accelerating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... fundamental level, the virtue of ion beams arises from the unique sample interactions that are distinctly different from electron beam instruments, scanned probes, or optical instruments. In most conventional uses, the FIB is used as a nanoscale “sand blaster” to remove materials from the sample by a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... process of selective oxidation is the concept for developing oxidation-resistant alloys ( Ref 8 , Ref 9 , Ref 10 ). In particular, the composition of the alloy is chosen such that the stable oxide is the one that provides the most effective protective barrier. The oxides Cr 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 , SiO 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., are highly collimated in nature, due to the relativistic effects, and have an angular divergence of less than a few milliradians. This small divergence leads to much less photon loss in the beam-manipulation process and a relatively larger portion of the beam delivered to the sample. The high...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... million in the United States in 1992), and there has been limited commercialization, except for cutting tools and wear applications. However, if cost-effective materials continue to be developed, the market could grow at an annual rate of 14.5% ( Ref 1 ). Table 1 gives the breakdown of market segments...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... Considerable care is necessary to ensure that electroreducible material reaches the indicator electrode only by natural diffusion. The other important mass-transfer processes, electrical migration and convection, are controlled rigorously; the former, an electric field effect, is related to the transport...