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n-type semiconductor oxides

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003589
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract This article describes the Schottky defect and the Frenkel defect in oxides. It provides information on the p-type metal-deficit oxides and n-type semiconductor oxides. The article discusses diffusion mechanisms and laws of diffusion proposed by Fick. It explains the oxide texture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article introduces various techniques commonly used in the characterization of semiconductors, namely single-crystal, polycrystalline, amorphous, oxide, organic, and low-dimensional semiconductors and semiconductor devices. The discussion covers material classification...
Book Chapter

By Jerome Kruger
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... in oxidizing environments, stainless steels, and many others. Examples of type 2 passivity are lead in sulfuric acid and iron in an inhibited pickling acid. A major characteristic of a type 1 passive system is the existence of a polarization curve ( i , current density, or rate, versus E , potential...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... dyn/cm 2 , tensile. Excessive stress can cause the films to crack and peel ( Ref 29 ). It is possible to choose the stress type and control the stress level by selecting the right deposition conditions ( Ref 21 ). Silicon Oxide Films Silicon oxide films are used as intermetallic dielectric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
...) Thermal conductivity, W/m · K  At 100 K (−280 °F) 232  At 200 K (−100 °F) 96.8  At 300 K (80 °F) 59.9  At 400 K (260 °F) 43.2 Electronic Intrinsic resistivity at 25 °C (77 °F), Ω · cm 53 Intrinsic conductivity type N (negative) Intrinsic electron drift mobility at 25 °C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... and plating additives. corrosion galvanic corrosion semiconductor integrated circuits oxidation tin tin lead alloys lead tarnishing chemical residues base metal migration plating additives METALS USED IN SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS (SICs) serve several functions. Within the chip...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... with an expansion coefficient relatively close to that of silicon and, in consequence, is being rapidly developed for substrate use. Thin-film insulators (including SiO 2 and other oxides, glasses, and Si 3 N 4 ) have been developed as interlayer dielectric and as thin-film passivation for integrated circuit...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... the p -type material. Copper connected to the p -type and n -type material forms the anode and cathode, respectively. Copper is oxidized at the anode (with the electrons being canceled by photo-induced holes), Cu → Cu 2+ + 2 e − . Copper is reduced at the cathode by the photo-induced electrons, Cu 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003709
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... can flow. Such materials are semiconductors. Electronic defects in nonstoichiometric semiconductors can be negative (electrons) or positive (holes) and are termed n-type and p-type semiconductors, respectively. Conductivity Conduction of electrical charge through an electrolyte results from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... gas port. Gaseous samples such as industrial gases (air, argon, helium, N 2 , O 2 , xenon) are regulated by using a needle valve, and gas flow is controlled by using a conventional flow meter. Depending on the type of gas, the concentration of the gas sample (especially organic gaseous compounds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... switching devices, namely, silicon-controlled rectifiers, insulated-gate bipolar transistors, and metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors. The article also provides information on frequency-multiplication harmonic-induction power supplies, namely, push-pull and half-bridge inverters and full...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... for applying MCrAlY metallic coatings on turbine blades and vanes for oxidation and corrosion protection. Zirconia thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) can also be deposited using this technique. Bond coats for EB/PVD TBCs are normally MCrAlY-type coatings, similarly processed. The major advantage of EB/PVD TBCs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... atomic layers of samples of metals, as well as of other materials, such as semiconductors and various types of thin films. A summary of surface analysis techniques is listed in Table 2 , showing the topics covered in the Surface Analysis Section of this Volume. These techniques are capable of providing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...-temperature scales are usually thought of as oxides, but may also be sulfides, possibly carbides, or mixtures of these species. Oxides and sulfides are nonstoichiometric compounds and semiconductors. There are essentially two types of semiconductors: p -type (or positive carrier)—which may have vacancies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... frequencies. As can be seen, there is no perfect device; each has pros and cons. Fig. 5 Common power semiconductor types, with power ranges and switching frequencies. IGBT, insulated-gate bipolar transistor; MOSFET, metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor Until the 1970s, power...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and technologies. Silicon epitaxial films are used routinely in the manufacture of high-performance bipolar and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits. The deposition of compound semiconductors with direct bandgaps has led to the production of millimeter and microwave devices, as well...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in semiconductor, electronics, computer disk drive, catalysis, and metallurgical applications where extremely small-area analyses (spectra, depth profiling, or mapping) are required. Types of AES Data Scanning Electron Micrographs Because the electron beam used in modern-day Auger systems is similar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... with a mass analyzer and a detector(s). Ion Source At present, there are two fundamental types of ion sources used for the GDMS: the low-pressure or static source, and the fast-flow sources. Both types can accept pin samples or samples with a flat surface ( Ref 9 ). Typical pin samples have a length...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... = − 285.290 + 0.05933   T where N is the number of atoms per molecule. For simple oxides and nonoxide compounds, correlations of this type are largely unavailable. Data Sources Obviously, where thermodynamic data are available for a pure compound, the invariant points for the substance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... Plasma-sprayed coatings of various materials (such as yttria, alumina, zirconia, chromium oxide, boron carbide, etc.) are applied to the inner walls of the semiconductor processing chambers to provide improved resistance against plasma erosion. The application of plasma-sprayed coatings has shown 10...