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multiple-layer alloys

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Multiple-layer alloy electrodeposition involves the formation of an inhomogeneous alloy consisting of lamellae of different composition. This article reviews the process description, engineering parameters, characterization, and applications of multiple-layer alloys. Pulsed-current...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... The protective layer is built up as a result of nitrogen diffusing into the surface layers of the tool steel producing hard and wear-resistant nitride layer. Extrusions made of the heat treatable alloys (2 xxx , 6 xxx , 7 xxx ) are strengthened in a two-step process involving solution heat treatment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... corroding or releasing nickel in harmful amounts. The key to the excellent corrosion behavior of Nitinol is establishing a nickel-free, stable oxide layer. If one simply heat treats Nitinol in air, a complex surface layer is formed that is composed of a mixture of titanium oxide and nickel-rich phases...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...: Deposition rate Level of dilution (the amount of substrate material intermixed with the overlay material during welding) Portability of equipment To overcome the effects of dilution on wear properties, multiple layers are often employed. Microstructurally, hardfacing alloys generally consist...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003996
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... a variety of techniques in order to obtain an acceptable finish and to remove the disturbed surface layer resulting from such die-sinking techniques as electrodischarge machining. However, state-of-the-art high-speed die sinking (e.g., spindle speeds of >10,000 rpm) and ultrahigh-speed die...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., not resistant Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions do not dissolve tantalum but tend to destroy the metal by formation of successive layers of surface scale. The rate of the destruction increases with concentration and temperature. Damage to tantalum equipment has been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... temperatures ( T F ) Several researchers have indicated that surface compressive stresses in cold-water-quenched 7000-series plate and forging alloys can have magnitudes >200 MPa (29 ksi) using the mechanical dissection layer-removal technique ( Ref 10 , 33 , 34 , 35 ). Other investigation using...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... that consideration be given to the choice between single-layer and multiple-layer wound resistors because of the difference in rate of heat dissipation between the two styles. In design of primary electrical standards of very high accuracy, cost of resistance material is not a consideration. For...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... orthopaedic implant is surgically installed into the human body, it is constantly bathed in extracellular tissue fluid. The oxide layer passivates the titanium and protects it from corrosion, as long as the oxide layer is not broken. Titanium and its alloys are very resistant to corrosion in physiological...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... resistance of metallic biomaterials (cobalt-base, stainless steel, and titanium-base alloys) is dependent on final-stage manufacturing procedures to form suitably protective passive oxide layers by using prescribed surface preparation methods as a final stage of implant fabrication (ASTM F86-04, “Standard...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Titanium alloy precision forgings are now produced with very thin webs and ribs; sharp corner and fillet radii; undercuts, backdraft, and/or contours; and, frequently, multiple parting planes (which may optimize grain flow characteristics) in the same manner as aluminum alloy precision forgings. Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... atmosphere (oxygen activity), temperature, and time. The value of x therefore varies as a function of the particular oxidizing species (oxygen, CO 2 , and CO mixtures) or mixtures thereof. As the oxide scale grows, the outer layers in contact with the oxide/gas interface gradually increase in oxygen...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... depth of the disturbed layer. Dry and clean with concentrated nitric acid if required. Microethcing of lead-antimony alloys containing up to 2% antimony 10 parts hydrogen peroxide (30%) 3 3 parts acetic acid (glacial) Etch by immersing specimen in solution for 6–15 s. Dry with alcohol...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... during heating in air, as indicated by white powdery layer on the surface of the forging, is observed above 470 °C (880 °F). Because forging temperatures are well below the melting points of the various alloys, no fire hazard exists when temperatures are controlled with reasonable accuracy. However...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006266
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... superalloys, commonly in the range of 620 to as high as 1040 °C (1150 to 1900 °F), is usually done in box furnaces, with or without protective atmospheres. During aging heat treatment, air is the most common atmosphere. The smooth, tight oxide layer that is formed is usually unobjectionable on the finished...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... films. The passive films are believed to be a mixture of chromium-molybdenum-rich oxides or hydroxides formed on the surface of the alloy. This is supported by recent studies that indicate that the presence of a segregated oxide film, which had an inner nickel/chromium-rich layer, was mainly responsible...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of the launder. Metal conveyance throughout the launder system into the machine-feed furnace is free from turbulence. The metal is moved smoothly and continuously under a protective layer of stationary metal oxides. Most important, metal temperature fluctuations are virtually eliminated. In...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006268
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... takes place, may indicate that there is a difference between the GP zones formed at NA and at AA temperatures. In both cases, however, GP zones are one copper layer thick but appear larger in diameter when aged at higher temperature ( Ref 110 , 119 ). Otherwise, their structure is as described...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... residual-stress relief must be weighed against possible effects deleterious to high-temperature properties and corrosion resistance. Another difference between wrought and cast is the frequent use of multiple aging treatments for wrought alloys. For example, a principal reason for an intermediate two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... illustrate how various diffusional processes can be modeled. single-phase modeling multiphase modeling diffusion modeling binary alloys multicomponent alloys MODELING DIFFUSION in alloys can be divided into two activities. One activity is to model the changes in composition and phases that take...