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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... input voltage, three-phase input machines, inverter-based power sources, short arc gas metal arc welding power sources, and multiple arc power sources are discussed. The article also presents the factors to be considered when selecting a power source. arc welding inverter-based power sources...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... welding current exceeds 1000 amps. Alternating current is frequently used when arc blow is encountered, including in multiple-electrode applications. Inverter and software-based power sources with digital control can provide a very stable square wave output that allows the user to control...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... to 6 × 10 7 15–25 Shallow at low-energy density range. Deep penetration at high-energy density range Electron beam 10 5 to 10 8 6 × 10 5 to 6 × 10 8 20–30 Deep penetration (a) Gas tungsten arc welding. (b) Gas metal arc welding. (c) Submerged arc welding. Source: Ref 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... Can produce ‘blind welds' that are difficult or expensive to accomplish using arc processes Laser beam/web plate alignment tolerance dependent on web thickness, beam diameter Maximum gap = 0.05 × flange thickness Joint strength determined by weld-metal strength and weld width (multiple...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... for such applications. Add-on “pulse formers” have also been designed for attachment for conventional dc welding power sources. On large job sites with a number of arcs, a multiple operator (MO) power source can serve several operators. Diversity of use suggests that all arcs will not be operating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... deposition rate or welding speed, more than one wire can be fed simultaneously into the same weld pool. For example, in the twin arc process, two electrodes are fed into the same weld pool while sharing a common power source and contact tip. In tandem arc SAW, multiple electrodes are arranged with one...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... resistivity coefficient with respect to temperature, which slows arc spot motion. However, pulsed sources that have low duty cycles also have correspondingly low integrated coating rates. Continuous cathodic arc sources are typically sustained by a low-voltage, high-current power supply, such as an arc...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... path to increase the size of the heat source. With the increased size of the heat source, a wider clad pass can be deposited. Laser cladding is characterized by lower heat-input levels and lower base-metal dilution than widely used arc-based cladding processes. High-power laser systems also provide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005130
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... systems require extensive safety precautions because of the potential for damaging stray reflections. Further details of laser systems may be found in Volume 6 of ASM Handbook . Plasma arc systems are less expensive than most high-power laser systems (usually<10%) and are readily available. To avoid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... Electron beam, wire DED, stress relieved 2 h at 650 °C (1200 °F) z 839 122 930 135 16.5 49 (a) (a) Data represent an average of 26 specimens in the z -direction, which were produced by using a power of 8.5 kW and a deposition rate of 6.9 kg/h (15.2 lb/h). Source: Ref 38 Table 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005707
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... techniques such as conventional CVD, laser-assisted CVD, cathodic arc deposition, molecular beam epitaxy, ion plating, and sputtering. anodizing case hardening chemical vapor deposition corrosion electroplating hardfacing hot dip coating ion implantation ion plating physical vapor deposition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... of supervisory system, known as a “blackboard,” was first developed in the 1980s ( Ref 12 , 13 ). The computer blackboard architecture has proven to be an efficient system for controlling multiple-knowledge sources, including expert systems, data base systems, neural network systems, and human users...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... used to add filler metal to the weld. However, the laser process can be used for multiple purposes, depending on the laser power density (W/cm 2 ) at the work surface. Fig. 1 Schematic of hybrid laser arc welding process orientations. (a) Laser leading. (b) Arc leading. GMAW, gas metal arc...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... welding and electron beam welding. The various arc welding processes encompass the midrange of the heat source power densities. The interaction time required to produce melting determines the appropriate bandwidth of the controller. For continuous welding, the interaction time is proportional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
..., or plasma-transferred arc welding heads. Heat sources range in power from less than 1 kW to 60 kW or more. Working distance from the power source is large for laser and electron beam approaches, and usually on the order of 300 mm (11.8 in.). For welding approaches, the working distance is about 25 mm (0.98...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... ). The contact tip (also called a contact tube) creates an electrical contact to apply a voltage to the wire from the welding power source. Current flow causes a high-temperature electric arc to be established between the wire and the workpiece, which melts the wire as it is continuously fed into the arc...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
.... Fig. 5 Schematic illustrations of the three basic ways in which electrical energy, supplied by a power source, can be used to heat and fusion weld a metal, including (a) use of the kinetic energy of electrons and positive ions in an arc to bombard the workpiece and produce heat (in arc welding), (b...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... power density is independent of heat source and is not a result of an arc phenomenon. A final example of the success of the fluid flow model in explaining GTAW phenomena is provided by butt welding together two steels with large differences in weld penetration characteristics. The weld pool...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
.... The article also contains a list of the various criteria for selecting the suitable welding process for carbon steels. arc welding carbon steel cutting fusion welding welding selection Table 1 Fusion welding and cutting processes Process Heat source Power source and polarity...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... It briefly describes the sources of atmospheric contamination in plasma melting furnaces and their control measures. The equipment used in plasma melting furnaces are also discussed. The article provides a detailed discussion on various plasma melting processes, such as plasma consolidation, plasma arc...