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momentum-trapping scheme

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... MODEL of the solidification of a metal alloy involves coupling of energy, species, mass, and momentum conservation equations ( Ref 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ). This article examines critical features of four key areas of modeling transport phenomena associated with casting processes: Heat and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... processes, a chemical scheme must be included in the coupled transfer model, which at least captures the key gas-phase reactions with the corresponding rates. This section describes the various stages of developing models for numerical simulation of the transport phenomena in VPP. The modeling...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... buffeting and impact forces by their negative momentum; the system only works well if it remains completely filled with liquid metal. As mentioned previously, the prefilling of any or all of the filling system is extremely valuable and strongly recommended, even if only achieved in part. However, if this...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... laser-based magneto-optical trap concept to continuously collect atoms ( Ref 21 ). Further lasers act to provide compression and then cooling of the atoms to temperatures as low as 30 μK. In one scheme, two intersecting laser beams are used for finally ionizing the atoms through a two-step excitation...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... each point in the casting is determined by the relation: (Eq 2) M = 2 ∑ i = 1 N 1 / d i The concept of the section modulus approach has been extended to other casting processes. The modulus approach is an approximate analysis scheme that uses geometry-based...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... advantages and limitations of bottom-blown processes over the top-blown classical BOF led to the development of combined-blowing processes where gases are blown both from the top and bottom of the converter, as shown in Fig. 8 . Several patented schemes exist under this broad category of steelmaking, which...
Book Chapter

By S. Lampman
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... nanograms in thin films to a few parts per million in bulk samples. Liquids and solids may be analyzed directly, and, in some cases, gaseous materials may be collected for analysis on filters or in chemical traps. With few exceptions, x-ray spectrometry provides no information on the oxidation state...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.9781627082907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7