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molybdate films

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article lists functions of lubricants common to the majority of applications and processes. It discusses the lubricant candidates widely used in forging: conversion coatings with soaps (stearate compounds) and molybdenum disulfide for cold forging; oil-based thick, film oil or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... incorporated into the formulation; and volatile components such as solvents, or water in emulsions and their composition. It provides general information on volatile organic compounds. The article describes the film-forming mechanisms of various coating types, namely, lacquers, chemically converting coatings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
.... This phenomenon is called electroendosmosis. Additionally, corrosion inhibiting pigments (chromates, borates, molybdates), due to their water solubility, may draw water through the coating film in an osmotic process. These pigments require water to partially dissolve the oxygenated metal inhibitor that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract Titanium alloys are often used in highly corrosive environments because they are better suited than most other materials. The excellent corrosion resistance is the result of naturally occurring surface oxide films that are stable, uniform, and adherent. This article offers explanations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract Tantalum is one of the most versatile corrosion-resistant metals known. The outstanding corrosion resistance and inertness of tantalum are attributed to a very thin, impervious, protective oxide film that forms on exposure of the metal to slightly anodic or oxidizing conditions. This...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... control procedures, causes of paint film defects, cost calculation, and safety and environmental precautions. The composition and characteristics of organic coatings, coating system selection factors, the types of paints for structural steel, and the applications of paint on structural steel are also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... or hydrofluoric acid salts, phosphoric acid, or other mineral acids. The chemical attack facilitates the dissolution of some surface metal and the formation of a protective film containing complex chromium compounds. A variety of metals and electrodeposited metal coatings, including zinc, cadmium...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Metallographers frequently need to take low magnification photographs of components, etch disks, fractures, and so forth, using either black and white or color film. A wide variety of approaches are possible. If the pictures are made on site, for example at an accident investigation, ordinary 35 mm medium-format...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... coating chemicals, reacts with the metal to be coated, and at the interface, a thin film of solution is neutralized because of its attack on the metal. In the neutralized solution, solubility of the metal phosphates is reduced, and they precipitate from the solution as crystals. Crystals are then...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... is called electroendosmosis. Additionally, corrosion-inhibiting pigments (chromates, borates, molybdates), due to their water solubility, may draw water through the coating film in an osmotic process. These pigments require water to partially dissolve the metal inhibitor, which then can wet and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... been made using fluoborate and dimethylformamide/water solutions ( Ref 46 ). Like many chromium alloys that were plated from similar solutions, it was difficult to sustain a reasonable rate of deposition. Consequently, only thin films (with controlled composition) could be obtained. Chromium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... usually reflowed by momentarily melting the tin coating in a resistance or induction heating unit. In doing so, a thin layer of tin-iron intermetallic compound is formed at the tin/steel interface. Next, an extremely thin passivation film based on chromium oxide is created by immersion or spraying of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... strong thermodynamic driving force for corrosion, and its surface film does not present a very protective kinetic barrier to corrosion. Despite these shortcomings, the interest in using magnesium alloys for a variety of applications is still high because of its weight advantage. Consumer uses of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... definition of electroless plating thus eliminates both those solutions that spontaneously plate on all surfaces (homogeneous chemical reduction), such as silver mirroring solutions, and immersion plating solutions, which deposit by displacement a very thin film of a relatively noble metal onto the surface of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Microetching of lead, lead-calcium alloys, and lead-antimony alloys containing more than 2% antimony. Also removes disturbed metal. 1 part hydrogen peroxide (30%) 4 Solution A:  15 g ammonium molybdate  100 mL distilled water Mix equal quantities of solutions A and B. Etch by alternately swabbing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... resistance: The hard anodizing processes produce coatings from 25 μm (1 mil) to more than 100 μm (4 mils) thick. These coatings, with the inherent hardness of aluminum oxide, are thick enough for use in applications involving rotating parts where abrasion resistance is required. Although all anodic films...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... cooling-water systems in conjunction with the use of biocides. Molybdates are typically combined with other inhibitors for optimal treatment. An oxidizing agent such as oxygen is required to form a protective film. Molybdates are generally most effective in the pH range of 5.5 to 8.5. Phosphates also...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of molybdena catalyst supported on γ-Al 2 O 3 and n -Al 2 O 3 ( Ref 61 ). Various catalysts were prepared by impregnation from aqueous molybdate solutions of pH 6 and 11, and the development of the final catalytic moiety was followed using Raman spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... Deburrs blind features Covers part with oxide film. Burr area must be free of oil and water Vibratory Versatile, economical process. Many deburring and finishing applications Not usually suitable for removing internal burrs in intersecting holes Source: Ref 3 The term “mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001264
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and prevent the reduction of nickel on their surface. Traditionally, inhibitors used with hypophosphite-reduced electroless nickel have been of three types: sulfur compounds, such as thiourea; oxy anions, such as molybdates or iodates; and heavy metals, such as lead, bismuth, tin, or cadmium. More...