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molten sulfate

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... Specific examples of the types of corrosion expected for the different metal-fused salt systems are also provided. The metal-fused salt systems include molten fluorides, chloride salts, molten nitrates, molten sulfates, hydroxide melts, and carbonate melts. The article concludes with information on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003593
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... gas turbine. Both in understanding and testing for corrosion by molten salts at high temperatures, the relevant salt depth and the gaseous atmosphere must be respected. The chemistry and corrosion have been studied for many fused salt systems: chlorides, fluorides, carbonates, sulfates, hydroxides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... extensively studied but are not widely used include carbonates, sulfates, hydroxides, and oxides. A number of kinetic and thermodynamic studies of corrosion by molten salts have been carried out in capsule-type containers. These studies can determine the nature of the corroding species and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... solubility of either element in the other, they also have the same self-protection mechanism against atmospheric oxidation. The aluminum is the matrix, and the beryllium is the reinforcement. Aluminum-beryllium composites are made by inert gas atomization from a molten alloy. The input aluminum is 1100...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Fig. 15 . Although heavy ash deposits could be present along the tube crown, the composition of the deposit determines whether or not fireside corrosion occurs. In the presence of molten ash products, the oxide, even in oxidizing environments, becomes unstable and dissolves. Alkali sulfates deposited...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... metal sulfates; if the temperature of the alloy is below the dewpoint of the alkali sulfate vapors and above the sulfate melting points, molten sulfate deposits are formed ( Ref 28 ). Molten sodium sulfate is the principal agent in causing hot corrosion ( Ref 29 , 30 ). Chloride salts can act as a...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the melting point of the sulfates ranges from 859 to 1450 °C (1578 to 2642 °F). Oxidizing compounds are used to promote exothermic chemical reactions. They react with the smallest molten aluminum particles that are present in the dross, yielding aluminum oxides as well as considerable heat. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... rechargeable batteries. Fuel cells are classified into five types: phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell, alkaline electrolyte fuel cell, molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), and solid oxide fuel cell. The article presents reactions that occur during charging and discharging of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003842
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article examines the high-temperature oxidation of silica-forming ceramics under constant temperature and cyclic conditions. The effects of water vapor, impurities, and molten salts are discussed. The article describes the oxidation and corrosion of silica-forming composites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003623
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract Corrosion resistance can usually be maintained in the welded condition by balancing alloy compositions, shielding molten and hot metal surfaces, and choosing the proper welding parameters. This article describes some of the metallurgical factors that affect corrosion of weldments. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article addresses surface cleaning, finishing, and coating operations that have proven to be effective for molybdenum, tungsten, tantalum, and niobium. It describes standard procedures for abrasive blasting, molten caustic processing, acid cleaning, pickling, and solvent and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... hafnium in specific media, namely, water, steam, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, alkalis, organics, molten metals, and gases. Forms of corrosion, namely, galvanic corrosion, crevice corrosion, and pitting corrosion are included. The article explains the corrosion of hafnium alloys such as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... Abstract In the investment casting process, molten metal is poured into hot molds, allowing for the production of castings with extremely thin sections, knife edges and sharp detail. This article discusses patternmaking and dimensioning, as well as the pattern materials, such as waxes and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0004050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... impurities in the fuel, such as vanadium, form highly corrosive molten sulfate-vanadate deposits; the lowest-melting eutectic in the Na 2 SO 4 -V 2 O 5 system is at approximately 500 °C (930 °F). Alkali metal chlorides, such as NaCl and KCl, present in coal and biomass as well as other low-melting metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., the range of the composition of corrosive gaseous or molten environments, and the variety of materials that may be used in a given power system. Moreover, corrosion prediction is further complicated because materials often degrade in a high-temperature environment of a given application by more than a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... sulfate (Na 2 SO 4 ) and potassium sulfate (K 2 SO 4 ), which melt and form a liquid on the surface. This molten salt attacks the oxide scale, destroying the protection normally afforded by this scale. Once the oxide scale is breached, sulfidation and oxidation of the metal occurs, which results in the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... or coated alloys is often difficult because of the range of composition of the corrosive gaseous or molten environments and the variety of materials that may be used. Moreover, corrosion prediction is further complicated, because materials often degrade in a high-temperature environment of a given...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... derives from the melting temperatures of the complex sulfates as well as the thermodynamic stability of these compounds. In a temperature range from as low as 538 °C (1000 °F) to the maximum, the corrosion mechanism is dominated by the formation of a molten phase in the intermediate ash layer. With the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... this range. Nonaqueous solutions, especially those based on molten salts, can provide useful alloy deposits. However, these tend to be relatively thick. Thin deposits offer the best prospect for providing lustrous finishes. Post-plating heat treatments can sometimes improve the mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... is usually necessary to protect the work to be plated by prestriking with gold. Platinum-group metal anodes are also soluble in molten cyanide systems, from which PGMs can be deposited to very heavy thicknesses. Molten cyanide systems operate under an argon atmosphere at temperatures of about 600 °C...