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molten sodium

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005944
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... bismuth, and molten sodium. It also contains tables that list the physical properties of lead, bismuth, sodium, and molten sodium. molten bismuth molten lead molten sodium physical properties quenchants quenching OIL, WATER, AND POLYMER solution baths are frequently used when quenching...
Image
Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 62 Cooling curves obtained during quenching in water, petroleum oil, aqueous polymer solution, molten salt, and molten sodium (at 115, 200, and 300 °C, or 240, 390, and 570 °F). The cooling curves were obtained using a 10 mm (0.4 in.) diameter by 30 mm (1.2 in.) cylindrical silver probe More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... content of the magnesium chloride melt, magnesium or sodium content, and oxygen content of the product. It concludes with a discussion on the oxygen activity in the titanium metal product. chloride corrosion indicator electrode magnesium magnesium chloride molecular solvent molten salt molten...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract This article describes various quenchants, namely, water and inorganic salt solutions, polymers (polyvinyl alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyethyl oxazoline, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and sodium polyacrylates), quench oils, and molten salts, which are used for heat treatment of ferrous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of such applications include molten sodium for liquid metal fast breeder reactors and central receiver solar stations as well as liquid lithium for fusion and space nuclear reactors. In addition, tritium breeding in deuterium-tritium fusion reactors necessitates the exposure of lithium atoms to fusion neutrons...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of varying types are generally chosen to contain these systems, because, in general, the basicity of the melt prevents iron corrosion. Protection by passive films is less reliable, because oxide ion discharge may break down the passive film. Electropolished iron spontaneously passivates in molten sodium...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... for martensitic alloys in the fully hardened condition because of the danger of hydrogen-embrittlement cracking. Salt Bath Descaling The removal of heavy scale may be accelerated by using baths of molten sodium hydroxide to which certain reagents are added. These baths can be used with virtually all...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... for various furnace parts, such as electrodes, thermocouple protection tubes, and pots for salt baths. Molten-salt corrosion of ferrous and nonferrous metals has been reported ( Ref 13 ), showing embrittlement of the alloy via grain-boundary penetration. Corrosion data in molten sodium-potassium nitrate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... is the starting material for producing most niobium powder. Fig. 5 Tantalum-niobium production flowchart Tantalum Powder Production Tantalum metal powder is produced by chemically reacting K 2 TaF 7 with molten sodium in a stirred retort containing molten sodium chloride diluent under an inert...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... than those involving compounds of alkaline earth metals (c) 0–5 0–2 Sodium cyanate 1.0 max 0.5 max Density of molten salt 1.76 g/cm 3 at 900 °C (0.0636 lb/in. 3 at 1650 °F) 2.00 g/cm 3 at 925 °C (0.0723 lb/in. 3 at 1700 °F) (a) Proprietary barium chloride-free deep-case baths...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... or intermittent flame impingement on the furnace walls may favor an environment that forms sodium and potassium pyrosulfates (Na 2 S 2 O 7 or K 2 S 2 O 7 ), which have melting points below 427 °C (800 °F). The presence of chlorides lowers the melting temperature of the combined molten salts and increases...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 28 ). These contaminants combine in the gas phase to form alkali metal sulfates; if the temperature of the alloy is below the dewpoint of the alkali sulfate vapors and above the sulfate melting points, molten sulfate deposits are formed ( Ref 28 ). Molten sodium sulfate is the principal agent...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... are burned. Solvents of Aluminum Oxides Examples are: Borax (Na 2 B 4 O 7 ) Potassium borate (K 2 B 2 O 4 ) Sodium cryolite (Na 3 AlF 6 ) Both the Hall and Heroult patents covered the electrolysis of aluminum oxide in a bath of molten halide salts. Since then, dissolution of aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... surfaces of boilers can react with SO 3 and SO 2 to form mixtures of alkali pyrosulfates (melting point: 400 to 480 °C, or 750 to 895 °F) or alkali-iron trisulfates (melting point: 550 °C, or 1020 °F) that cause fireside corrosion of reheater and superheater tubes ( Ref 66 ). Molten sodium pyrosulfates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... pyrosulfate … Molten NR Potassium sulfate 1–5 Room to hot E 10 Room E Potassium sulfide … … E Potassium thiosulfate 1 Room E Silver bromide … … E Silver chloride … … E Silver cyanide … … E Silver nitrate 50 Room E Sodium acetate (moist) 5 Room E...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...–20 Sodium chloride 20–40 0–20 Sodium carbonate 30 max 30 max Accelerators other than those involving compounds of alkaline earth metals (c) 0–5 0–2 Sodium cyanate 1.0 max 0.5 max Density of molten salt 1760 kg/m 3 at 900 °C (110 lb/ft 3 at 1650 °F) 2000 kg/m 3 at 925 °C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...-melting molten metals attack silver, including mercury, sodium, potassium, lead, tin, bismuth, and indium. The corrosion resistance of silver in various gases is given in Table 6 . Corrosion of silver in gases Table 6 Corrosion of silver in gases Gas Temperature Corrosion rate °C °F mm...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... process (U.S. Patent 3,022,204) in which measured amounts of air are pumped through the molten bath. The introduction of air provides agitation and stimulates chemical activity. The cyanide content of this bath, calculated as sodium cyanide, is maintained at preferably about 50 to 60% of the total bath...
Book Chapter

By J.R. Keough
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract Molten salt, including nitrite/nitrate salts, is the quenching medium most commonly used in austempering and marquenching of ferrous materials. This article describes the use of molten salts in the quenching of ferrous materials. It provides information on the processing and operation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... polymer solution; or an aqueous (salt) solution. Other quenching media include molten salt, fluidized bed, or gas, although forced air is sometimes used. As a result of the quenching process, production parts must develop an acceptable as-quenched microstructure and, in critical areas, mechanical...