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molten bismuth

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005944
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... bismuth, and molten sodium. It also contains tables that list the physical properties of lead, bismuth, sodium, and molten sodium. molten bismuth molten lead molten sodium physical properties quenchants quenching OIL, WATER, AND POLYMER solution baths are frequently used when quenching...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005306
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... (the Kroll-Betterton process). Magnesium metal and Pb-5Ca master alloy are stirred into the bismuth-containing molten lead at 420 °C (790 °F). As the lead is cooled back to its freezing point, CaMg 2 Bi 2 crystals precipitate, leaving the lead refined of bismuth. The precipitate is intermixed with lead...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001092
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... for bismuth in commercial lead. The two most important methods for removing bismuth from lead are the Betterton-Kroll process and the Betts process. The Betterton-Kroll process is based on the formation of high-melting compounds such as Ca 2 Bi 2 and Mg 3 Bi 2 that separate from the molten lead bullion bath...
Book Chapter

By Paul T. Vianco
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... of the solder; molten alloy does not flow on top of the board. As the printed circuit board passes on the wave, the solder wets the surface-mount package leads, terminations, and exposed metal surfaces in the circuit board, and also fills plated through holes. This technique can produce several thousand solder...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Fusible alloys, eutectic and noneutectic, include a group of binary, ternary, quaternary, and quinary alloys containing bismuth, lead, tin, cadmium, and indium that melt at relatively low temperatures. This article describes the composition and mechanical properties of these alloys...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... action. Heat is required to raise the joint to a suitable temperature and melt the solder and to promote the action of a flux on the metal surface so that the molten solder will wet and flow into the joint. Successful soldering involves shaping the parts to fit closely together, cleaning the surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... polymer solution; or an aqueous (salt) solution. Other quenching media include molten salt, fluidized bed, or gas, although forced air is sometimes used. As a result of the quenching process, production parts must develop an acceptable as-quenched microstructure and, in critical areas, mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as the previously described form. Known examples include the wetting of aluminum by gallium ( Ref 15 ), carbon steel by copper ( Ref 15 ), and copper by bismuth ( Ref 21 ). Failures Caused by LME of Steel The first reported case of LME of steel, in this instance by molten brass, was documented in 1927 ( Ref...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... for martensitic alloys in the fully hardened condition because of the danger of hydrogen-embrittlement cracking. Salt Bath Descaling The removal of heavy scale may be accelerated by using baths of molten sodium hydroxide to which certain reagents are added. These baths can be used with virtually all...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Ingot casting is the vital conduit between molten metal provided by primary production and recycling and the manufacture of aluminum and aluminum alloy products. A number of ingot casting processes have been developed to ensure the soundness, integrity, and homogeneity required...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... the occurrence of explosions. The presence of lithium, lead, and bismuth in the alloy increases the risk of explosions. Container walls with inorganic coatings reduce the risk of explosions. Any form of impact concurrent with the introduction of molten aluminum into the water-filled container increases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... Breeding fluids of lithium or lead-lithium are attractive for this purpose. Molten lead or bismuth can serve as neutron multipliers to raise the tritium breeding yield if other types of lithium-containing breeding materials are used. More recently, in the United States, liquid mercury has been selected...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...+CuSO 4 15H 3 PO 4 -10H 2 SO 4 Room to 66 (150) E Picric acid Concentrated … E Propionic acid vapor … 190 (375) E Pyrogallic acid … … E Salicylic acid … Room E Stearic acid Concentrated Room to 93 (200) E Succinic acid … Molten E Sulfuric acid 1–5 Room to 60...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... superalloys is greatly improved compared to air (EAF/AOD)-melted superalloys. Additionally, high-vapor-pressure elements (specifically lead and bismuth) that may enter the scrap circuit during the manufacture of superalloy components are reduced during the melting process. Accordingly, the vacuum-melted...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... The head contains the vacuum ports and the ram, which drives the electrode into the crucible as it is consumed. The electrode position is controlled to maintain an arc gap between the melting electrode tip and the molten pool on the top of the solidified ingot in the water-cooled copper mold. When an ingot...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., a particular mineral deposit may be used to extract several metals as they are often found together, such as copper, gold, lead, zinc, antimony, bismuth, molybdenum, and arsenic. Most common minerals of high tonnage metals (iron, aluminum, copper, titanium, nickel, chromium, magnesium, zinc, and others...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... on solidification for these metals is in the range of 3.2 to 7.2%. The solidification shrinkage for the less closely packed body-centered cubic lattice is in the range of 2 to 3.2%. The exceptions to this general pattern are those materials that expand on freezing. These include cerium, silicon, and bismuth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., leaded steel gears have cracked during induction-hardening heat treatments, and warm punching of leaded steel shafts has resulted in unexpected fracture during the forming operation. Cadmium-plated titanium and steels are embrittled during high-temperature service by molten cadmium. Indium, used...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005192
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... recently ( Ref 11 ). In the study, an isotope exchange technique was used to measure the rate of dissociation of the nitrogen molecule (N 2 ). In particular, the effects of carbon, sulfur, phosphorus, lead, tin, bismuth, and tellurium on the rate were investigated. Sulfur, phosphorus, lead, bismuth...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is to be produced. Instead, molds for iron castings are usually made of sand, using clay-water or resin bonds. Sea coal is generally added to the molding sand; it expands and cokes in response to the heat from the solidifying casting, and resists penetration of molten metal into the mold. Cores are often coated...