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molecular solvent

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract Molten salts, in contrast to aqueous solutions in which an electrolyte (acid, base, salt) is dissolved in a molecular solvent, are essentially completely ionic. This article begins with an overview of the thermodynamics of cells and classification of electrodes for molten salts...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001732
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract This article provides an introduction to the molecular fluorescence spectroscopy, and discusses the theory of fluorescence and its application to chemical analysis. It provides information on fluorescence that occurs in organic compounds and inorganic atoms and molecules. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003692
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., the molecular structure is not cross linked into a rigid molecule, as are the chemically cross-linked or the autooxidized coating systems. Rather, the resinous binder is dissolved in a suitable solvent, mixed with the pigment and other constituents comprising the formulated paint, and packaged. On application...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... cross linking or the tight polar bonding between molecular chains. Heating increases molecular movement, enabling more rapid water penetration. Conversely, cooling, particularly below the T g , reduces molecular movement and retards water permeation. Solvent Retention Solvents are not found...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... to react. This is because the coating resin is dispersed in a solvent that evaporates, reducing mobility of the molecules of the reactants. Additionally, low reactant temperatures reduce molecular mobility. The presence of pigments and other ingredients also separate the reacting molecular chains. Because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006652
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., the average molecular weight of that component should be tracked by using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry or perhaps gel permeation chromatography. A materials scientist would explain that the type of filler, including its dimensions, can greatly influence the final material properties. From...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... A, the resin becomes a solid and must be dissolved with suitable solvents in order for the resin to be used as a coating material. Traditionally, an n of approximately 2 and a molecular medium weight of 800 to 1000 have been used in the formulation of typical workhorse amine and polyamide epoxy coatings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006867
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... in the absence of the ESC reagent. Finally, there are some chemicals that cause actual degradation of the polymer, breaking the macromolecular chains, reducing molecular weight, and diminishing polymer properties as a result. This article examines each of these effects. The discussion also covers the effects...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the macromolecular chains, reducing molecular weight, and diminishing polymer properties as a result. Each of these effects is examined in subsequent paragraphs. Plasticization, Solvation and Swelling Certain interactions between liquid chemicals and polymers can be understood through the use of solubility...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... varying degrees of viscosity decrease, depending on the polarity of the solvent. The lower-molecular-weight resin is used to manufacture coatings with lower VOC content ( Tables 2 , 3 ). Percent solids and viscosity of fluoroethylene vinyl ether high-molecular-weight resin in various solvents Table...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of the solvents in an explosion-proof oven. GPC A chromatograph is used to define and fingerprint the molecular weight distribution of the resin. Reaction advancement can also be determined by this method. Prepreg Tests Resins that have been impregnated onto fibers are placed there via a solvent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... been able to produce materials that meet the needs of the industry. High-Solids Primers High-solids primers have proven to be a viable alternative to waterborne primers and exempt-solvent-based primers for achieving VOC compliance. They are usually low-molecular-weight epoxies reacted with low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001278
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... with a wide array of resins, pigments, and solvents. One disadvantage of curing coatings with melamine formaldehyde is that somewhat elevated temperatures, approximately 120 °C (250 °F), are required to achieve adequate properties. Because many of the plastics that are used have a heat distortion temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... processes, and solvents used in manufacturing processes. Principles of Mass Spectrometry When a molecule(s) passes through an electron beam having an energy of approximately 10 eV, an electron is removed from the molecule, and a positively charged ion (molecular ion) is formed; that is, the molecule...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... be incorporated into the formulation; and volatile components such as solvents, or water in emulsions and their composition. It provides general information on volatile organic compounds. The article describes the film-forming mechanisms of various coating types, namely, lacquers, chemically converting coatings...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... with two drops of 10% sulfuric acid. Finally, the solution was filtered through 2-μm filters to remove particulates which could clog the chromatographic flow system. Parabens are amenable to reversed phase LC because they are low molecular weight compounds that are soluble in polar solvents. Figure 10...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the data on a logarithmic pre- corresponding molecular regions. At higher matic hydrocarbon-based solvent. sentation. Because moduli can change by frequencies, smaller molecular regions are several orders of magnitude, a linear presenta- observed. Ref 1 presents detailed descriptions Tests and Results tion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The formation of crazes is sensitive to many variables, such as polymer molecular weight, loading conditions, temperature, pressure, and the presence of solvents. Crazes will initiate in a plastic when a critical limit is reached in stress, strain, dilation, or distortion strain energy. Higher molecular weight...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... with solvents that do not attack the artwork ( Ref 8 , 9 ). The second type of solventborne acrylic system is a thermoset coating, in which the initially low-molecular-weight polymer is cross linked after film formation with an external cross linker. In this type of system, the initial molecular weight...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Practical information provided Gel permeation chromatography (GPC)⁠; molecular weight distribution, MWD Weight-average molecular weight, M ¯¯¯¯w … Polymer MWD with soluble polymers … Low-angle light scattering, MWD for homopolymers, interactions polymer/solvent M ¯¯¯¯w M ¯¯¯¯w...