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molecular configuration

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Published: 31 December 2017
Fig. 1 Eight of the carbon allotropes, or different molecular configurations, of pure carbon. (a) Diamond. (b) Graphite. (c) Lonsdaleite. (d) C 60 (buckminsterfullerene). (e) C 540 . (f) C 70 . (g) Amorphous carbon. (h) Single-walled carbon nanotube. Used under CC-BY-SA-2.5,2.0,1.0. Source More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... combination of electron configurations produces a spectroscopic term that describes the state of the atom. Atomic emission is analytically useful only to the extent that the emission from one atomic species can be measured and its intensity recorded independent of emission from other sources. Emission sources...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... spectroscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and dynamic mechanical analysis. The article describes the methods for molecular weight assessment and mechanical testing to evaluate plastics and polymers. The descriptions of the analytical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The descriptions of the analytical techniques are supplemented by a series of case studies that include pertinent visual examination results and the corresponding images that aid in the characterization of the failures. The article describes the methods used for determining the molecular weight of a plastic resin...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Mechanical properties are often the most important properties in the design and selection of engineering plastics. Temperature, molecular structure, crystallinity, viscoelasticity, and effects of environment, fillers and reinforcements are considered as the basic factors affecting...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001732
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract This article provides an introduction to the molecular fluorescence spectroscopy, and discusses the theory of fluorescence and its application to chemical analysis. It provides information on fluorescence that occurs in organic compounds and inorganic atoms and molecules. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006930
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Plastics Testing Geometries One important aspect of the rheological testing of polymers is the testing of the materials in their molten state. The rheological properties are greatly affected by the nature of the polymer, its molecular weight and molecular weight distribution, the degree...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article focuses on transport phenomena and modeling approaches that are specific to vapor-phase processes (VPP). It discusses the VPP for the synthesis of materials. The article reviews the basic notions of molecular collisions and gas flows, and presents transport equations...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... helmets; and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), used to make ice hockey dasher boards and pen tips. Thermosets, on the other hand, once reacted and cured, cannot be re-formed by any means that will not break the covalent bonds and destroy the polymer. Examples of thermosets include...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... polymers, including the polymerization method, how the material deforms, or molecular origin or stability. The article contains tables that list common medical polymers used in medical devices. It explains the medical polymer selection criteria and regulatory aspects of materials selection failure analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... a particular analytical technique. Practical information derived from polymer analysis methods Table 2 Practical information derived from polymer analysis methods Test method Property Practical information provided Gel permeation chromatography (GPC)⁠; molecular weight distribution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006918
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... engineering polymers. The article describes fracture mechanics solutions and approaches to the fatigue characterization of engineering polymers when dealing with macroscale fatigue crack growth. It includes mechanistic images for high-density polyethylene, ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene, nylon 6, 6...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... with a double bond or cyclic structure in their backbone chains. In such polymers, two totally different types of mer can occur: they are cis forms and trans forms, which cannot be converted into one another by bond rotation. Figure 5 shows these two configurations for the mer of polyisoprene. The two forms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006917
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of amorphous plastics are generally less packed and more randomly organized, while semicrystalline materials include regions of tightly and orderly packed polymer molecules together with less-ordered regions ( Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1 Generic molecular arrangement for an amorphous and a semicrystalline polymer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003692
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... coatings, and as coating materials in the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) markets. Fine powders produced from high-molecular-weight resins of the thermoplastic vinyl and fluorinated hydrocarbon families, or from thermoset resins of the epoxy and polyester families, are applied to the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... is known, it is possible to calculate the optimal amount of curing agent required for the resin. The viscosity of the resin is a convenient index for its handling and flow characteristics during cure. Other properties of more limited interest include softening point, melting point, molecular weight...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... effect on solubility, chemical resistance, and softening point. Silicon Silicon is found primarily in silicones, where it imparts low surface energy and resistance to oxidation. Phosphorus Low-molecular-weight phosphorus-containing additives or co-monomers are used as flame retardants...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... with pigments, additives, and catalysts, followed by homogenizing in a kneader-extruder, then ground and screened to make powder coatings. Powder coatings typically are applied by electrostatic spray and then are heated to melt and cure the coating. The polyesters used are amorphous, with 2000 to 6000 molecular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006662
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... discusses the sampling techniques and applications of IR spectra as well as the molecular structure information it can provide. The discussion begins with a description of the general principle of IR spectroscopy. This is followed by a section on commercial IR instruments. Sampling techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... Abstract This article discusses the most fundamental building-block level, atomic level, molecular considerations, intermolecular structures, and supermolecular issues. It contains a table that shows the structures and lists the properties of selected commodity and engineering plastics...