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molecular composition

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... polymer is sometimes referred to as molecular engineering. The polymer chain may be cross linked with other chains if its individual components remain reactive after the polymer is formed. A cross-linked polymer is called a thermoset, whereas a polymer that is not cross linked is called a thermoplastic. A...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006651
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Inductively coupled plasma and thermal ionization MS provide atomic information, and direct analysis in real-time and matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization MS are used to analyze molecular compositions. The article describes various factors pertinent to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.9781627081955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article focuses on transport phenomena and modeling approaches that are specific to vapor-phase processes (VPP). It discusses the VPP for the synthesis of materials. The article reviews the basic notions of molecular collisions and gas flows, and presents transport equations. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract Elastomers belong to a group of materials known as polymers that acquire their properties and strength from their molecular weight, chain entanglements, and crystalline regions. This article focuses on the use of elastomers as seals and describes its performance capabilities from the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article illustrates the three techniques for producing glassy metals, namely, liquid phase quenching, atomic or molecular deposition, and external action technique. Devitrification of an amorphous alloy can proceed by several routes, including primary crystallization, eutectoid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... base polymer to prolong the life of the material and improve its physical, chemical, and aesthetic properties. The properties of common synthetic medical polymers vary widely and are governed by their chemical composition, molecular weight, molecular architecture, and morphology. More detailed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract Total joint replacement in orthopedic surgery can be achieved by excision, interposition, and replacement arthroplasty. This article details the most common materials used in total replacement synovial joints, such as metals, ceramics, and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Crystal structure is the arrangement of atoms or molecules in the solid state that involves consideration of defects, or abnormalities, in idealized atomic/molecular arrangements. The three-dimensional aggregation of unit cells in the crystal forms a space lattice or Bravais lattice...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005983
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract This article describes the effects of furnace atmospheric elements on steels. These elements are air, water vapor, molecular nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The article provides useful information on six groups of commercially important prepared atmospheres classified by...
Book Chapter

By S.L. Rohde
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... ejected from a surface by momentum transfer from an energetic bombarding species of atomic/molecular size. It uses a glow discharge or an ion beam to generate a flux of ions incident on the target surface. This article provides an overview of the advantages and limitations of sputter deposition. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006662
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... discusses the sampling techniques and applications of IR spectra as well as the molecular structure information it can provide. The discussion begins with a description of the general principle of IR spectroscopy. This is followed by a section on commercial IR instruments. Sampling techniques and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005659
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Abstract This article provides a summary of biocompatibility or biological response of metals, ceramics, and polymers used in medical implant, along with their clinical issues. The polymers include ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene, nonresorbable polymer, and resorbable polymers...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... elongation. Plasticized plastics generally have high melt indexes. Plasticizers lower melt viscosity and processing temperature. Fundamentally, they function by broadening the molecular weight distribution and increasing the low-molecular-weight fraction of the total composition. Plasticizers are essentially...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... restorative composites use both Bis-GMA and UDMA monomers ( Ref 9 ). Fig. 1 Structure of bisphenol glycidyl dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA) monomer Fig. 2 Structure of urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) monomer Bis-GMA has a higher molecular mass than traditional methylmethacrylate materials (512...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
...;750 °F) in various atmospheres. The fibers are often stressed during this stage of the process to improve the orientation of the molecular structure and increase carbon fiber strength and modulus. All fiber handling equipment is designed to minimize any damage that could occur in transit from one...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... In the mid-1970s, Japanese researchers produced SiC fibers by controlled pyrolysis of silicon-based polymeric precursors ( Ref 24 , 25 ). Their steps were to: Characterize the polymer (yield, molecular weight, purity, etc.) Melt spin the polymer into a precursor fiber Cure the precursor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract This article introduces the principal methodologies and some advanced technologies that are being applied for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites. These include acoustic emission, ultrasonic, eddy-current, computed tomography, electromagnetic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... used only where performance demands outweigh cost considerations ( Ref 8 ). High-performance polyethylene fibers are now available from a number of sources. At the molecular level they are composed of “extended-chain” crystallites of the zigzag polyethylene chain. These fibers are lighter and offer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003839
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... 2 ) and molecular oxygen (O 2 ), respectively ( Ref 148 , 149 ). Approximately one-third of the total anodic current is consumed in the oxidation of lead under these conditions ( Ref 146 ). Poor bonding between Al 2 O 3 fibers and the matrix allowed the electrolyte to diffuse into fiber-matrix...