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molar volume

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003588
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract Metals can react chemically with oxygen when exposed to air. Essential to an understanding of the gaseous corrosion of a metal are the crystal structure and the molar volume of the metal on which the oxide builds, both of which may affect growth stresses in the oxide. This article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
...) ε iron becomes stable. The reason for these changes can be explained by Eq 12 . At constant temperature, the free energy of a phase increases with pressure such that: (Eq 14) ( ∂ G ∂ T ) T = V If the two phases in equilibrium have different molar volumes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005430
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... = entropy of vacancy migration (J/K) t = time (s) T = temperature (K) V m = molar volume of a phase (m 3 /mol) x i = mole fraction of component i y i α , y i β = site fractions of component i on the α and β sublattices, respectively Y i...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... without an abrupt change in the physical properties, such as molar volume or heat capacity. Therefore, metastable states can exhibit a true reversible equilibrium. The thermodynamic description of solidification can be quantified by recalling that for a pure metal at the equilibrium temperature, T f...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... temperature t time V M molar volume W boundary-groove interface shape, W ( x , t ) w diameter of alpha platelet X fraction transformed X s fraction spheroidized x , y , z Cartesian coordinates α alpha phase β beta phase Γ shear strain Γ...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... R Universal gas constant S Ratio of surface area to volume S c Ratio carbon concentration: iron alloy melt to eutectic S r Rectified saturation degree, that is, weight fraction Fe-C eutectic formed on solidification of hypoeutectic iron Δ S ¯ i Partial molar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005511
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... l is the length, V i is the instantaneous volume, and V A is the volume of austenite at a specified temperature. The instantaneous volume, V i , is calculated from the phase fraction and molar volume of each phase involved in the phase transformation: (Eq 3) V i = ∑ φ f V...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... ) 2 where a is a constant, V 1 is the molar volume of the solvent, R is the gas constant, T is the absolute temperature, and δ p and δ s are the solubility parameters (that is, square roots of the cohesive energy densities) of the plastic and solvent, respectively. Equation 7...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... in predictable ways. For example, for selenides of the type Ge-As-Se, the glass transformation temperature, hardness, Young's modulus, and strength increase, while the thermal expansion coefficient and molar volume decrease with a tighter structure. The properties of these glasses also depend on the type...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... and nonconserved order parameters. Typical examples of the conserved order parameters include concentration of a chemical species, density, and molar volume in a multicomponent and multiphase system. Examples of the nonconserved order parameters include long-range order parameters for atomic ordering, inelastic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...ASM Handbook, Volume 13A: Corrosion: Fundamentals, Testing, and Protection Copyright © 2003 ASM International ® S.D. Cramer, B.S. Covino, Jr., editors, p1032-1033 All rights reserved. DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003719 www.asminternational.org Abbreviations and Symbols a crack length; chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003716
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Essential to an understanding of gaseous corrosion are the crystal structure and the density (molar volume) of the oxide and of the metal on which the oxide builds. Both may affect growth stresses in the oxide. For high-temperature service, the melting points of the oxide and metal, their structure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Absorption Spectrometry” in this Volume). The spectral region of interest extends from 200 to 800 nm. The short-wavelength (200 nm) high-energy end of this spectral region is defined by the fact that below 200 nm oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere begin to absorb the radiant energy. The region below...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0005697
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...-intensity factor keV kiloelectron volt kg kilogram km kilometer kPa kilopascal ksi kips (100-lb) per square inch kV kilovolt L length L liter lb pound LME liquid-metal embrittlement In natural logarithm (base e) m meter M molar solution; magnification Me camera magnification M. enlarging magnification Mr...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.9781627081818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003589
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... the Pilling-Bedworth molar volume ratio is: (Eq 2)  Volume of  1  mol of Al 2 O 3  Volume of  2  mol of Al = 1.287 where the volumes are calculated from molecular and atomic weights and the densities of the phases. If the ratio is less than 1, the oxide scales are usually...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... ). In Fig. 6 , the experimental results, given in volume fraction, have been compared with mole percent predictions, which is reasonable because molar volumes of the two phases are very similar. The d ¯ for the amount of austenite is less than 4%, of the same order as would be expected...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... in the article “Potential versus pH (Pourbaix) Diagrams” in this Section of the Volume. Thermodynamics of Chemical Equilibria The object of chemical thermodynamics is to develop a mathematical treatment of the chemical equilibria and the driving forces behind chemical reactions. The desire is to catalog...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... and electronic defects is a dominating mode of mass transport. X X X Interdiffusion in a binary alloy (Darken model) Oxidized alloy is an ideal solid solution, i.e., y i = a i X X X An alloy molar volume does not depend on composition. X X X Mass transport in an alloy is controlled...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is the difference in molar volume of the two phases in the reaction, and Δ H is difference in molar enthalpy of the two phases (the heat of the reaction). Solutions The shape of liquidus, solidus, and solvus curves (or surfaces) in a phase diagram are determined by the Gibbs energies of the relevant phases...