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mixed-film lubrication

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article lists functions of lubricants common to the majority of applications and processes. It discusses the lubricant candidates widely used in forging: conversion coatings with soaps (stearate compounds) and molybdenum disulfide for cold forging; oil-based thick, film oil or...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... insufficient solubility of an additive at room temperature. Blooming (precipitation of the additive on the polymer surface, forming a tacky film, as the polymer cools from processing temperature) occurs when the additives have low molecular weight, the additives form a supersaturated solution in the polymer at...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... lubrication is sufficient to prevent any contact between asperities. Bearing friction is proportional to fluid viscosity and surface velocity. Minimum film thickness is proportional to viscosity and surface velocity. Hydrodynamic lubrication is also called “thick film” and “fluid filmlubrication...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Plates (solid, hollow, or ribbed) Films The disadvantages of extrusion exist in the drying, binder removal, and firing operations. The binder and solvent that have been added to the mix must be either totally or partially removed in the drying process. This operation may be performed over a wide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... concern and can typically be detected using traditional moisture meters designed for wood. Prior to mixing, thinning, and applying the coating, the contractor should determine the target wet-film thickness (WFT) to apply. Some coating manufacturers list...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Thus, a fluid chosen for its lubricating qualities must be directed so that it can form a film at the sliding surfaces. Likewise, a fluid used for cooling must gain reasonable access to the cutting edge of the tool. These conditions usually require that the fluid be forced into the cutting zone so that...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... chemical cleaning. Pickling in dilute sulfuric acid is the most common method for cleaning brass and most other copper alloy forgings, although hydrochloric acid can also be used. Aluminum bronzes form a tough, adherent aluminum oxide film during forging. An effective method of cleaning aluminum bronze...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... lubrication ( Ref 69 ), but a representative coefficient of friction is 0.02. All current forms of total replacement joints rely on boundary or at best mixed-film lubrication, and their coefficients of friction are therefore inevitably higher than those of their natural counterparts. Some care has to be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... pressure spikes become even more severe when the lubrication condition is the mixed elastohydrodynamic (EHD) type, where the fluid film vanishes locally and instantaneous asperity contacts take place. The sliding action between the mating surfaces generates frictional heat that increases the surface bulk...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... depending on the state of the secondary scale at the roll gap HV Vickers hardness of the contacting material HV ox Vickers hardness of the oxide scale h exit Scale thickness at the exit from the roll gap h min Oil film thickness h o Interface heat-transfer coefficient h o...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... the composition or properties of the film material or to increase the interfacial adhesion by interfacial mixing or “stitching” ( Ref 60 ). To “recoil mix” or “stitch” an interface, the films must be rather thin (<100 nm) and the ion energies are selected to give the peak range just beyond the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 5). As shown schematically in Fig. 9 ( Ref 5 ), the contact fatigue life, given by the number of cycles to failure, is at maximum for Λ > 3, when fluid-film lubrication is attained. As Λ decreases, a mixed-lubrication regime is attained, and the fatigue life decreases because adhesive wear...
Book Chapter

By Donald M. Mattox
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... between a film and substrate (for example, silver on steel for mirrors, silver on beryllium for diffusion bonding) ( Ref 65 ) Electrical conductive layers (aluminum, silver, and gold) on plastics and semiconductors Low-shear solid film lubricants (for example, silver and gold) ( Ref 107 ) Wear...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... between the head clamp and the extrusion die ( Fig. 6 ). Fig. 6 Static mixer, which mixes by dividing and recombining the laminar flow in the melt stream Blown-film extrusion ( Ref 1 , 2 , 3 ) is widely used to manufacture PE and other plastic films. A typical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... cathodic cleaning, because the dissolution of the metal prevents the formation of nonadherent metal films resulting from impurities in the cleaning solution ( Ref 6 ). Anodic electrocleaning also helps to remove metallic smut. The anodic alkaline electrocleaning baths are operated at temperatures from 70...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... films 66 CrN IBAD Cr N 2 + 12,000 10 −-4 –0.1 … 25 75 High hardness 9 BN Reactive IBAD B N 2 + 25–40,000 0.7 N 2 200 390 Some cubic BN 67 BN IBAD B N 2 + 120,000 … … 300 570 Ion-beam mixing 68 BN IBAD B N 2...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Al 2 O 3 , TiC, TiN Low coefficient of friction and high lubricity TiN, Al 2 O 3 , TiC Fine grain size TiN, TiC, Al 2 O 3 (a) For each property, best material is identified first. Diamond films grown by CVD exhibit outstanding properties approaching natural diamond, such as...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... effectiveness of lubricant Seals and filters could have failed Fretting induced by slight looseness in clamped joints subject to vibration Bearing and materials engineering design can reduce or eliminate problem Water contamination High velocities and uneven flow distribution, cavitation...
Book Chapter

By Erhard Klar
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... improving compacting properties, lubricant addition for compacting grade powders, mixing of different powders for premixes, and blending of powders and powder mixes to homogenize their various components. These treatments are usually performed by the powder producer. The quality of these treatments can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... between parameters. Oxidative wear tends to occur at low stress levels and can be found in both normal and compound-impact contacts. Wear rates are low because the contacting surfaces are separated by oxide films, which tend to have better lubricating properties than bare metal surfaces. Wear...