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mineral acids

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Published: 01 January 1994
Fig. 10 Corroding effect of mineral acids on boronized and nonboronized (a) 0.45% C (Ck 45) steel and (b) 18Cr-9Ni (X10CrNiTi189) steel at 56 °C (130 °F). Source: Ref 17 , 18 More
Image
Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 6 Corroding effect of mineral acids on boronized and nonboronized (a) 0.45% C (Ck 45) steel and (b) 18Cr-9Ni (X10CrNiTi18 9) steel at 56 °C (130 °F). Source: Ref 4 , 5 , 14 More
Image
Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 1 Corrosion of a porcelain enamel in boiling water and boiling mineral acids. Source: Ref 2 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article focuses on the mineral and organic acid cleaning of iron and steel. It begins with a discussion on the application methods, process selection criteria, solution composition, equipment used, and control of process variables in mineral acid cleaning. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract For chemical processing, niobium resists a wide variety of corrosive environments, including mineral acids, many organic acids, liquid metals, and most salt solutions. This article focuses on the mechanisms of corrosion resistance of niobium alloys in these environments. The niobium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., C r 2 O 7 2 − 1. Barium chloride Pale-yellow precipitate of barium chromate, soluble in dilute mineral acids; insoluble in water and in acetic acid 2. Silver nitrate Brownish-red precipitate of silver chromate, soluble in dilute nitric acid and in ammonia solution; insoluble...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... concludes with a discussion on polymeric lubricants and solid lubricants. lubricants rolling-element bearings lubrication mineral oils rolling bearings nonpetroleum oils polyglycols phosphate esters silicone fluids dibasic acid esters fluorinated polyethers greases corrosion prevention...
Image
Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 7 The contributions of strong acid (acid rain), weak acid (dissolved atmospheric CO 2 ), and dry deposition (conversion of corrosion film minerals to more soluble species by reaction with acidic gases, SO 2 and HNO 3 ) to runoff from a copper corrosion film calculated using PHREEQC More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... proposals on a realistic basis. Chemical cleaning solutions include mineral acids, organic acids, bases, complexing agents, oxidizing agents, reducing agents, and organic solvents. Inhibitors and surfactants are added to reduce corrosion and to improve cleaning efficiency. Following the cleaning cycle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Corrosion of cast chromium and carbon steels in mineral acids Table 5 Corrosion of cast chromium and carbon steels in mineral acids Steel Weight loss in 5 h 5% H 2 SO 4 5% HCl 5% HNO 3 mg/cm 2 mg/in. 2 mg/cm 2 mg/in. 2 mg/cm 2 mg/in. 2 Carbon steel, 0.31% C 2.7 17.42...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) Operating temperature range: 10 to 82 °C (50 to 180 °F). (d) Two frequently used solvents are deodorized kerosine and mineral seal oil. (e) Most soaps are based on rosin or other short-chain fatty acids, saponified with organic amines or potassium hydroxide. (f) Low molecular weight petroleum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... with appropriate ventilation or in an inert high-pressure vessel. With appropriate safety consideration, however, sulfuric acid is an effective dissolution medium for iron-base materials, mineral halides, and rare earth phosphates. The concentrated acid may need to be heated to be effective. In its diluted aqueous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003582
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... the initial conditions of a system have been so defined, the modeler can introduce a reactant ( titration model ) to the equilibrium system. The reactant dissolves irreversibly, which may cause mineral phases in the system to dissolve (i.e., the reactant is an acid) or the precipitation of one or more mineral...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... oil type Mineral oil Olefin polymer Alkyl aromatic Polyphenyl ether Dibasic acid ester Neopentyl polyester Poly-alkylene glycol Phosphate ester Silicone Silicate ester Fluoro-carbon Liquid range Moderate Good Good Poor Very good Very good Good Moderate Excellent Poor Poor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0005650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... in a laboratory hood where emergency treatment is available. Hydrofluoric acid is available in concentrations up to 100%, unlike other mineral acids. The following does not address concentrations of 60% or higher, except to state that it may require substantially different and more extreme precautions...
Image
Published: 01 January 1994
Fig. 9 Sequence of operations for spray zinc phosphating of automotive bodies Stage Type Composition Temperature Time,s °C °F 1 Organic solvent Mineral spirits 30 86 60 2 Alkaline cleaner Titanated, alkali 6.0 g/L (5.0 × 10 −2 lb/gal) 60–65 140–150 70 3 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003847
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... extensively in many industries for their corrosion and/or abrasion resistance. These industries include transportation, chemical processing, water treatment, power, mineral processing, and mining. The largest-volume use of rubber linings is in phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid, and ferric or ferrous chloride...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... from germanium powder and ammonia at 700 to 850 °C (1300 to 1560 °F). The nitride does not react with most mineral acids, aqua regia, or caustic solutions, even when hot. Germanium disulfide (GeS 2 ) is an unusual and useful compound because it is insoluble in strong acids such as 6 N HCl and 12 N...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Treatment with mineral acids, the most widely used dissolution technique, is applicable to many metals, ores, and a multitude of other inorganic and organic industrial materials. Acid digestion may be broadly characterized as oxidizing or nonoxidizing. Nonoxidizing acid attack is often associated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., ethers, methanol, butanol, and ketones above 65 °C (150 °F), acetic acid above 95 °C (200 °F), and H 2 SO 4 and aromatic amines above 65 °C (150 °F). It resists mineral acids up to 120 °C (250 °F), inorganic alkalis, inorganic salts, and oxidizing acids at room temperatures. Polyvinylidene Fluoride...