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mineral acids

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article focuses on the mineral and organic acid cleaning of iron and steel. It begins with a discussion on the application methods, process selection criteria, solution composition, equipment used, and control of process variables in mineral acid cleaning. The article then...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract For chemical processing, niobium resists a wide variety of corrosive environments. These environments include mineral acids, many organic acids, liquid metals, and most salt solutions. This article focuses on the mechanisms of corrosion resistance of niobium alloys in these...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... dissolution in water Fig. 10 Schematic diagram of a mineral surface showing decomposition in water and generation of a porous layer of residue on the surface The leaching of a compound in an aqueous environment can take several forms. Simple dissolution reactions in water, acid, and alkali...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... corrosive media include: hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, hydrofluoric acid, hydrobromic acid, nitric acid, organic acids, salts, seawater, and alkalis. The modes of high-temperature corrosion include oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, sulfidation, nitridation, corrosion by halogens...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003847
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... extensively in many industries for their corrosion and/or abrasion resistance. These industries include transportation, chemical processing, water treatment, power, mineral processing, and mining. The largest-volume use of rubber linings is in phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid, and ferric or ferrous chloride...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract The reflected light microscope is the most commonly used tool to study the microstructure of metals, composites, ceramics, minerals, and polymers. For the study of the microstructure of metals and alloys, light microscopy is employed in the reflected-light mode using either bright...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Structural applications for advanced ceramics include mineral processing equipment, machine tools, wear components, heat exchangers, automotive products, aerospace components, and medical products. This article begins with an overview of the wear-resistant applications and the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... Adequate ventilation also should be provided in the vicinity of a pickling operation. The mechanism of scale removal, or pickling, by mineral acids involves the penetration of acid through cracks in the scale, followed by the reaction of the acid with the innermost scale layer and base metal. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... hafnium in specific media, namely, water, steam, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, alkalis, organics, molten metals, and gases. Forms of corrosion, namely, galvanic corrosion, crevice corrosion, and pitting corrosion are included. The article explains the corrosion of hafnium alloys such as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... titrations are useful as analytical tools. The most common are acid/base, precipitation, complexometric, redox, and iodimetric or iodometric titrations. It is uncommon to find a solid sample that is completely homogeneous, whether that material is an alloy or a mineral. Based on the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Passivation; pickling, that is, acid descaling; electropolishing; and mechanical cleaning are important surface treatments for the successful performance of stainless steel used for piping, pressure vessels, tanks, and machined parts in a wide variety of applications. This article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Anodizing refers to conversion coating of the surface of aluminum and its alloys to porous aluminum oxide. This article provides the reasons for performing anodizing and discusses the three principal types of anodizing processes, namely, chromic acid process, sulfuric acid process, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... article provides a discussion on the mechanism of corrosion resistance and on the behavior of tantalum in different corrosive environments, namely, acids; salts; organic compounds; reagents, foods, and pharmaceuticals; body fluids and tissues; and gases. It contains several tables that summarize the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... mineral acid, organic acid, or acid salt, in combination with a wetting agent and detergent, is used to remove oxide, shop soil, oil, grease, and other contaminants from metal surfaces, with or without application of heat. The distinction between acid cleaning and acid pickling is a matter of degree, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... compounds from magnetic particle and fluorescent penetrant inspection. The cleaning processes include emulsion cleaning, electrolytic alkaline cleaning, acid cleaning, solvent cleaning, vapor degreasing, alkaline cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, and glass bead cleaning. The article provides guidelines for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... enough, it is removable only by the action of strong mineral acids. Stannate baths normally appear colorless to straw colored, and clear to milky, depending on the quantity of colloidal material present. If an appreciable quantity of stannite builds up in the bath, it will appear light to dark gray...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... manganese and slightly higher in aluminum. Aluminum bronzes are generally suitable for service in nonoxidizing mineral acids, such as phosphoric (H 3 PO 4 ), sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ), and HCl; organic acids, such as lactic, acetic (CH 3 COOH), or oxalic; neutral saline solutions, such as sodium chloride...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... at elevated temperatures, and when mineral acidity can arise, as with chlorinated hydrocarbons containing water, there may be some corrosion ( Ref 42 ). Animal, vegetable, or mineral oils and fatty acids are also essentially inactive, and the absence of any catalytic action of tin on their oxidation...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., rinsing after phosphating, and chromic acid rinsing. The article describes the techniques for controlling the chemical composition of various phosphating solutions. It discusses the equipment and factors that influence equipment requirements in immersion and spray systems. The article also describes the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...), electrocleaning, acid dipping, and zinc conversion coating treatments. acid dipping alkaline cleaning brushing buffing coating coating adherence controlled shot peening conversion coatings corrosion resistance electrocleaning emulsion cleaning mechanical finishing parting lines finishing...