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mineral acids

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article focuses on the mineral and organic acid cleaning of iron and steel. It begins with a discussion on the application methods, process selection criteria, solution composition, equipment used, and control of process variables in mineral acid cleaning. The article then...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... fluosilicic acid. Chlorides, aluminum ions, ferrous/ferric ions, and other organic species also are present from the mineral and water used in the reactions ( Ref 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ). It is important to note that because of the presence of oxidizing impurities (especially Fe 3+ and Al 3+ ions) in the real...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract For chemical processing, niobium resists a wide variety of corrosive environments. These environments include mineral acids, many organic acids, liquid metals, and most salt solutions. This article focuses on the mechanisms of corrosion resistance of niobium alloys in these...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... source ( Ref 15 ). Carbon dioxide has little effect on corrosion rate except when pH levels are below 7 where CO 2 can react with water to form a weak acid. Mineral content of mine water begins with the breakdown of iron sulfide minerals, principally pyrite and marcasite, that are generally associated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... contained in tailings ponds near the alumina refineries and would be an easily accessible resource. Zinc ores also represent a significant source of gallium, although not all zinc ores contain gallium. Sphalerite, a zinc sulfide mineral, generally contains detectable quantities of gallium, but little...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... nature of the gangue material accompanying the valuable mineral is of great concern. The type of process required for extraction depends largely on the nature of the gangue in terms of its basicity or acidity. The amount and composition of gangue dictates the type of flux required for preparing a proper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... corrosive media include: hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, hydrofluoric acid, hydrobromic acid, nitric acid, organic acids, salts, seawater, and alkalis. The modes of high-temperature corrosion include oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, sulfidation, nitridation, corrosion by halogens...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... concludes with a discussion on polymeric lubricants and solid lubricants. lubricants rolling-element bearings lubrication mineral oils rolling bearings nonpetroleum oils polyglycols phosphate esters silicone fluids dibasic acid esters fluorinated polyethers greases corrosion prevention...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... , p 69 34. Maguire M.A. and Yau T.L. , “Corrosion-Electrochemical Properties of Zirconium on Mineral Acids,” paper 265, presented at Corrosion/86, National Association of Corrosion Engineers , 1986 35. Holmes D. , “Effect of Heat Treatment and Tin Content on the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004186
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... bright dip baths. Phosphoric acid is also used as a nutrient for biological processes in secondary wastewater treatment plants. Its major use is in the agriculture industry, where it is used to produce fertilizer solutions and as a mineral supplement in cattle feed. Other uses are the production of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003847
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... extensively in many industries for their corrosion and/or abrasion resistance. These industries include transportation, chemical processing, water treatment, power, mineral processing, and mining. The largest-volume use of rubber linings is in phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid, and ferric or ferrous chloride...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract The reflected light microscope is the most commonly used tool to study the microstructure of metals, composites, ceramics, minerals, and polymers. For the study of the microstructure of metals and alloys, light microscopy is employed in the reflected-light mode using either bright...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Structural applications for advanced ceramics include mineral processing equipment, machine tools, wear components, heat exchangers, automotive products, aerospace components, and medical products. This article begins with an overview of the wear-resistant applications and the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... mineral acids, organic acids, bases, complexing agents, oxidizing agents, reducing agents, and organic solvents. Inhibitors and surfactants are added to reduce corrosion and to improve cleaning efficiency. Following the cleaning cycle, a passivating agent can be introduced to retard further corrosion or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... provided in the vicinity of a pickling operation. The mechanism of scale removal, or pickling, by mineral acids involves the penetration of acid through cracks in the scale, followed by the reaction of the acid with the innermost scale layer and base metal. The presence of hydrogen gas, which forms when...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... hafnium in specific media, namely, water, steam, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, alkalis, organics, molten metals, and gases. Forms of corrosion, namely, galvanic corrosion, crevice corrosion, and pitting corrosion are included. The article explains the corrosion of hafnium alloys such as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... cupric salts organic solvents noble metals neoprene reinforced thermoset plastics HYDROCHLORIC ACID (HCl) is an important mineral acid with many uses, including acid pickling of steel, acid treatment of oil wells, chemical cleaning, and chemical processing. It is made by absorbing hydrogen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0005650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... reported due to its use. Inorganic and organic acids are common constituents in chemical and electrolytic polishing solutions and in etchants. The inorganic or mineral acids, including the very familiar acids such as hydrochloric, nitric, perchloric, phosphoric, and sulfuric, are highly corrosive and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... useful as analytical tools. The most common are acid/base, precipitation, complexometric, redox, and iodimetric or iodometric titrations. It is uncommon to find a solid sample that is completely homogeneous, whether that material is an alloy or a mineral. Based on the complex...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract This article provides information on basic chemical equilibria, wet analytical chemistry, and the appropriateness of classical wet methods. It focuses on nonoxidizing acids and oxidizing acids. The article includes information on the qualitative methods used to identify materials by...