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millimeter-wave frequencies

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Electromagnetic signals at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies are well suited for inspecting dielectric materials and composite structures in many critical applications. This article presents a partial list of reported nondestructive testing (NDT) application areas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of the structure with small changes in frequency, and these signals constructively combine to form wave packets that travel within structure much like a wave guide. Some wave packets, or modes, can travel long distances without significant attenuation once they are formed ( Ref 11 ), and these are the richest...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... was first shown by Lord Rayleigh as a note in the proceedings of the Royal Society ( Ref 1 ) and was calculated as a limiting case applied to Lamb wave modes ( Ref 2 , 3 ). Rayleigh waves are found in nature at low (nonultrasonic) frequencies as the destructive component generated by earthquakes and have...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Ultrasonic inspection is a family of nondestructive methods in which beams of high-frequency mechanical waves are introduced into materials, using transducers, for the detection and characterization of both surface and subsurface anomalies and flaws in the material. This article...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0005697
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... spectroscopy Eq equation et al. and others ETP electrolytic tough pitch (copper) eV electron volt f frequency; focal length F force fcc face-centered cubic FF fast-fast (wave form) Fig. figure ft foot FS fast-slow (wave form) FSS fatigue striation spacing g gram gal gallon GPa gigapascal h hour H height HAZ...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.9781627081818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... be established in a resonant specimen. This wave is generated by a relatively small periodic stimulus at the same frequency as the natural frequency of the test specimen. Resonance is required to achieve the strain amplitude needed to produce fatigue in materials. Displacement and strain are developed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005857
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... for a microstructural profile determination. By the choice of excitation frequency (the frequency with which the hysteresis loop is followed), the measurement can be restricted to the surface alone ( f ∼1 kHz) or to a region including several millimeters below the surface (5 mm, or 0.2 in., f ∼ 0.05 Hz...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... inch below surface under good conditions Iron and steel, nickel, cobalt Ultrasonic UT—phased array, guided wave, wave-field, EMAT, magnetostrictive (MS) piezoelectric High-frequency vibrations are introduced into sample. Waves are reflected or scattered by discontinuities. In many cases, UT may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... and inspection requirements. A further constraint is then the limited viewing angles for an inspection and the inspection methodology (e.g., pulse-echo) and inspection system employed, which defines wave type, frequency, and wave-field characteristics, including the need for required coverage and resulting data...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... is characterized by two parameters, the resonance field ( H R ) and the linewidth (Γ). Careful measurement of H R at several frequencies and in different geometries can be used to establish several material parameters, such as magnetization and magnetic anisotropy. In contrast, linewidths yield invaluable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... microscope can image several millimeters or more into most samples and is ideal for analyzing at a specific depth. Because of a very large top surface reflection from the sample, this type of microscope is not effective in the zone immediately below the surface unless the Rayleigh wave mode to scan near...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... represents the laser light wavelength. The extreme sensitivity of this interferometer severely limits its application in wave propagation experiments due to the inordinately high signal frequencies that may be generated. An NVI or a VISAR, on the other hand, has a variable sensitivity given by λ/[2τ + (1 + δ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... is the number of elements per wavelength, with ten typically being regarded as the bare minimum. To give an indication of what this translates to for ultrasonic simulations, consider ultrasound at 2.5 MHz in steel. The wavelength of shear waves at this frequency is ∼1 mm (0.04 in.), so the maximum element size...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... eV electron volt EXB exothermic brazing exp base of the natural logarithm EXW explosion welding f frequency FCAW flux cored arc welding fcc face-centered cubic fct face-centered tetragonal FEA finite-element analysis FEM finite-element method Fig. figure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-effect sensors, and magnetic-particle techniques), ultrasonic, acoustic emission, guided wave, laser testing, microwave, radiographic, thermal and infrared testing, x-ray diffraction, and visual inspection. Selection of the NDT method depends on product manufacturing specifications and requirements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0005586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... cementite; coulomb; heat capacity C constant; velocity of light; shock wave velocity CAD/CAM computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing CAE corrosion-affected erosion CANMET Canada Center for Mineral and Energy Technology CBED convergent-beam electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
..., the penetration depth increases correspondingly during the process cycle, even when heating nonmagnetic metals. Table 4 shows some penetration depths of metals that are most commonly used with induction heating versus temperature and frequency. Penetration depth of nonmagnetic metals measured in millimeters...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0005693
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... x-ray powder diffraction XRF x-ray fluorescence XRS x-ray spectrometry Abbreviations a crystal lattice length along the a axis ac alternating current A absorbance ADC analog-to-digital converter AFC automatic frequency control...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
...; frequency ac alternating current fn normal load AI arti cial intelligence F Faraday constant; force AMS Aerospace Material Speci cation fcc face-centered cubic ANSI American National Standards Institute fct face-centered tetragonal ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials FEA nite-element analysis...