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microwave refraction

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... for microwaves. It discusses the advantages and limitations of inspection with microwaves. The article discusses the physical principles, including reflection and refraction, absorption and dispersion, scattering, and standing waves. It provides a discussion on terahertz (THz) imaging for nondestructive...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of these techniques uses one or more of the several processes by which materials can interact with microwaves, namely, reflection, refraction, scattering, absorption, and dispersion. The basic components of the transmission technique are shown schematically in Fig. 1 . Fig. 1 Diagram of the basic components...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003435
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Abstract This article discusses the attempts made by the industry to create sensing approaches for modeling a process, part, and chemistry and kinetics. It reviews microwave curing of thick-section composites and the resin cure sensors that are used for resin cure monitoring. These include...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Abstract This article discusses two major sintering methods: pressureless and pressure-assisted sintering. Pressureless sintering techniques include vacuum and partial-pressure, hydrogen, and microwave sintering. Pressure-assisted consolidation techniques include overpressure sintering...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... major categories are based on silica: soda-lime glass, lead glass, and borosilicate glass. Soda-lime glass is the most widely used because of its excellent transparency, which makes it suitable for window glass and containers. Glasses containing lead have a high refractive index and can be easily...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... ), thermal decomposition ( Ref 3 ), or microwave sintering ( Ref 40 ). For example, both pure metallic and ceramic microscale lattices, which were extraordinary light and stiff, were fabricated by using microscale MIP-SL. After the printing process, thermal decomposition and sintering were applied to remove...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., wt% Thermal expansion, ×10 7 /°C Softening point Density, g/cm 3 Refractive index Young's modulus SiO 2 Na 2 O + K 2 O CaO + MgO B 2 O 3 Al 2 O 3 °C °F GPa 10 6 psi Fused silica High-temperature use 100 … … … … 5.5 1667 3033 2.2 1.458 69 10.0 Soda-lime Plate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... or 113.56 MHz. A typical RF reactor with parallel electrodes is shown in Fig. 2 . Microwave glow discharge is also used at a standard frequency of 2.45 GHz. Fig. 2 Radio-frequency plasma CVD reactor configured for deposition on silicon wafers A recent and promising development...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is identified first. Diamond Films Diamond films grown by CVD exhibit outstanding properties approaching natural diamond, such as high electrical resistivity, high optical transparency, extreme hardness, high refractive index, and chemical inertness. Different film deposition techniques and system...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
...), organic compounds that change their light reflection and refraction properties when a current is applied, are the most common substitute for LEDs. For example, LEDs have virtually been replaced by LCDs in one of their original applications—digital watches. The principal competition for gallium-base...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... dielectrics). In the PECVD process, the gaseous precursors are most commonly subjected to time-varying electric fields of frequencies in the range of 50 kHz to 13.5 MHz. In some designs, microwave frequencies are also used. The electric field initially reacts primarily with the free electrons present...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... properties (strength, toughness, and hardness), chemical properties (acid, base, and weather durability), and physical properties (thermal expansion, softening temperature, density, refractive index, light transmittance as a function of wavelength, and light scattering). Often, the properties that influence...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0005692
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... for photography is to refract light differently as a function of principles. optical density. wavelength is minimized. See also achro- matic, apochromatic lens. analytical curve. The graphical representa- absorption (of electromagnetic radiation). A tion of a relation between (1) the intensity decrease...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... applications, but TiO 2 is also being developed as an oxygen sensitive resistive sensor. Other categories of ceramic materials include ferrites and ceramic superconductors. Recent developments in ferrites have been related primarily to their use as recording heads, but research in the area of microwave...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... General pseudoplastic behavior. Source: Ref 25 Fig. 18 Frequency dependence of the (a) dielectric constant and (b) dielectric loss. Source: Ref 8 Fig. 19 Light refracted by a plastic sample Fig. 6 Cross-linked polymer Fig. 7 Representative structures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... in their properties and how specialized many polymers have become. Consider the differences between aramid bulletproof vests and the polyurethane foam used in pillows. Why can plates made of crystallized polyethylene terephthalate be microwaved successfully while plastic film wrap (polyvinylidene chloride) has poor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... another and produce color contrast. Contrast differences between phases is achieved by optimizing the optical absorption coefficient ( k ) and refractive index ( n ) of the film with respect to the optical properties of the phases. Thickness of the film is also controlled to produce interference effects...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006748
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... lens. A lens that is corrected for analytical curve. The graphical representation chromatic aberration so that its tendency to of a relation between (1) the intensity of the aberration. In microscopy, any error that refract light differently as a function of response to measurement (for example...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0005549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... precious metal SHE standard hydrogen electrode MMIC monolithic microwave integrated P/M powder metallurgy SI Systeme International d'Unites circuit PMS PbM06Ss SIS superconductor/insulating! MOCVD metallo-organic chemical vapor POC products of combustion deposition ppb parts per billion superconductor mPa...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... silicon processing technology to reduce the acoustic impedance of a front plate to enhance matching to air ( Ref 10 ). There also are modalities that have been demonstrated which remain of research interest, for noncontact generation, such as time-gated microwaves for ultrasound generation ( Ref 11...