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microstructure examination

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... processes involved in the selection of metallurgical samples, the preparation and examination of metallographic specimens in failure analysis, and the analysis and interpretation of microstructures. Examination and evaluation of polymers and ceramic materials in failure analysis are also briefly discussed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... each of the macrophotographs taken. Further analysis may require sectioning for microstructural examination. Optical metallographic photography is used to document the microstructure and internal structural conditions of a failed component. Nondestructive inspection may be required to document...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... the fracture origin. In this way, the origin of the fracture can be examined to determine if important microstructural abnormalities are present that either caused or contributed to fracture initiation. It is also possible to determine if the fracture path at the initiation site is transgranular or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... tracking method to simulate the growth of the boundary defined between a mushy zone and the melt ( Ref 18 ). Before examining the technical details, it is worth noting that all models for microstructure formation on different scales rely on an indicator function that gives the phase state at a specific...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005408
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article explores the potential of through-process simulations of the development of microstructure, texture, and resulting properties during the thermomechanical processing of Al-Mn-Mg alloys, starting from the as-cast ingot to final-gage sheet. It provides an introduction of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... monitoring via an inspection scheme. This article begins with a discussion on the stages of the fatigue damage process. It describes hierarchical multistage fatigue modeling and several key points regarding the physics of crack nucleation and microstructurally small crack propagation in the HCF regime. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article focuses on the modeling of microstructure evolution during thermomechanical processing in the two-phase field for alpha/beta and beta titanium alloys. It also discusses the mechanisms of spheroidization, the coarsening, particle growth, and phase decomposition in titanium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article summarizes the general features of microstructure evolution during the thermomechanical processing (TMP) of nickel-base superalloys and the challenges posed by the modeling of such phenomena. It describes the fundamentals and implementations of various modeling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... microstructure, distortion, residual stress, and cracking in gears, shafts, and bearing rings. bearing rings cracking distortion electrical conductivity gears heat treatment heat treatment simulation induction hardening magnetic permeability microstructure phase transformation residual stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Metallographic examination is one of the most important procedures used by metallurgists in failure analysis. Typically, the light microscope (LM) is used to assess the nature of the material microstructure and its influence on the failure mechanism. Microstructural examination can be...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... microstructural phenomena in great detail. However, these strengths are seriously offset by the difficulty of specimen preparation and the fact that not only very small amounts of material are examined. Scanning electron microscopy and EPMA require much simpler sample preparation and can readily locate and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., measuring the amount, size, and spacing of constituents, using the light optical microscope. The discussion covers the examination of microstructures using different illumination methods and includes a comparison between light optical images and scanning electron microscopy images of microstructure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... abnormal or discontinuous grain growth. It also examines the key mechanisms that control microstructure evolution during hot working and subsequent heat treatment. These include dynamic recovery, dynamic recrystallization, metadynamic recrystallization, static recovery, static recrystallization, and grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Microstructural analysis requires a deformation- and damage-free sample for correct characterization. A typical preparation procedure includes sectioning, mounting, planar grinding (coarse grinding), sample integrity (rough polishing), polishing, etching, and examination. Ideally a specimen is prepared in such a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract The systematic study of microstructural evolution during deformation under hot working conditions is important in controlling processing variables to achieve dimensional accuracy. This article explains the microstructural features that need to be modeled and provides an outline of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005414
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... strain under isothermal conditions is primarily due to volumetric changes associated with phase transformations. From the analysis of the dilatometry data and examination of the resulting microstructure in the specimen, it is possible to identify the starting point and completion of phase transformations...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... discusses the types of molding methods, such as rammed graphite molding and lost-wax investment molding. The article provides information on the casting design, melting, postcasting, and pouring practices. It describes the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-6AI-4V alloy. The article examines the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article describes the methods and equipments involved in the preparation of specimens for examination by light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis for microindentation hardness testing, and for quantification of microstructural parameters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) approach enables essentially simultaneous examination of microstructural features through imaging from lower magnifications to atomic resolution and the acquisition of chemical and crystallographic information from small regions of the thin...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... article describes the aluminum-silicon eutectic system and the lead-tin eutectic system. It discusses eutectic morphologies in terms of lamellar and fibrous eutectics, regular and irregular eutectics, and the interpretation of eutectic microstructures. The article examines the solidification of a binary...