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microstructural spatial clustering

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... through continuous fields such as the atomic concentration or long-range-order parameters. The spatial and temporal evolution of the microstructure is then driven by differential equations obeyed by these fields. Because this technique is the object of the article “Phase-Field Modeling of Microstructure...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... Nucleation during solidification is a thermally activated process involving a fluctuational growth in the sizes of clusters of solids. The article describes nucleation phenomenon such as homogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation. It discusses various grain refinement models, such as carbide-boride...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... microstructure involves a large number of variables (one or several for each spatial coordinate, r , with each one regarded as a degree of freedom). An effective way to formulate their time evolution (the kinetics of microstructure change) is to define a total energy of the system and derive the kinetics along...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... coefficient applicable to the microstructure scale considered, and c is the Coffin-Manson exponent. The spatial volume for nonlocal averaging of the driving force is the lesser of approximately 1 μm 3 or ℓ 3 , where ℓ is the scale of the transition crack length at which the crack grows out of the influence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... ), pseudospinodal decomposition ( Ref 7 , 8 , 9 ), and spinodal decomposition of intermediate α phase obtained via congruent β → α transformation ( Ref 10 ). These TPs provide ample opportunities to engineer desired microstructures in terms of size, shape, and spatial distribution of α precipitates within the β...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., then it collects and analyzes the ionized atoms or clusters of atoms ejected from the sample surface by this beam. Information can be obtained with lateral spatial resolution of 100 to 500 nm. The ions removed from the surface are identified by a highly sensitive mass spectrometer. This identification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article examines how cellular automaton (CA) can be applied to the simulation of static and dynamic recrystallization. It describes the steps involved in the CA simulation of recrystallization. These include defining the CA framework, generating the initial microstructure...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... while fully utilizing outstanding wear properties, primary silicon crystals should be controlled to uniform small size and have uniform spatial distribution. This can be accomplished by adding phosphorus to the melt, thus creating an abundance of AlP 3 nuclei suitable for initiating primary silicon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004002
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... evaluated the resulting mechanical behavior of the subscale forged billets. In part, this relates to the difficulty of testing adequately sized subscale billets due to equipment capacity limitations. However, the general effects of deformation processing on subsequent microstructure and properties have been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... computational tools for the prediction of the interrelationships between microstructure and properties, and for this article, specifically tensile properties, for a wide range of materials. As noted previously, in any given metallic material, there are a number of contributing strengthening mechanisms. A...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... can be described as being built of nanosized clusters of atoms interacting across the interface with each other. These clusters, or close-packed groups, interact with each other by means of elastic fields. However, if the interatomic interactions are relatively weak compared to the elastic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005431
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... in understanding the effect of certain parameters on the process. However, these methods do not model spatial variation directly, and the parameters do not necessarily always have direct physical significance. Typically, partial differential equations are required to describe the process in terms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... across a surface with micrometer to submicrometer spatial resolution. Cluster ion beams (e.g., Bi 3 , C 60 , Ar 5000 ) have become available that yield more signal for organic materials and even allow for depth profiling of organics. Because secondary ion intensities vary dramatically from element to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... effects attained with different deformation techniques. For large strains when the material strengthening ability is exhausted, plastic flow becomes unstable and localized inside shear bands (SBs). Very thin shear bands first appear at the microscale, then they join into clusters observed at the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.../Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, on a point-by-point analysis. Microdiffraction also allows for analysis of materials in capillaries as well as small-volume samples/crystal clusters mounted on a glass fiber. The μXRD analysis geometry is similar to that of conventional powder diffraction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... treatment, so that the particles act as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the η phase. Precipitates are fine phases or clusters that form during aging of a supersaturated solid solution (see also the article “Age Hardening of Aluminum Alloys” in this Volume). In many (but not all) metals, alloying...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... , dislocation accumulation is already counteracted by recovery processes from the beginning of deformation, with continuously increasing frequency as deformation proceeds. Hardening is due to clustering of dislocations in local tangles, which are spatially d in a loose cell wall structure and, for example...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... this technique include image doubling due to the K α doublet as well as significant loss of spatial resolution with increasing specimen-film distance. This technique often is used for initial assessment of crystals of new materials ( Ref 20 ). The transmission Berg-Barrett method ( Fig. 8b ) (also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... course, a function of the alloy composition; therefore, some alloys are suitable for use at temperatures substantially above ambient. A variety of microstructures can be formed in partially devitrified metallic glasses, depending on the details of the metallurgical processes. Devitrification of an...