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microstructural features

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract The systematic study of microstructural evolution during deformation under hot working conditions is important in controlling processing variables to achieve dimensional accuracy. This article explains the microstructural features that need to be modeled and provides an outline of the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Microstructural analysis is the combined characterization of the morphology, elemental composition, and crystallography of microstructural features through the use of a microscope. This article reviews three types of the most commonly used electron microscopies in metallurgical studies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... relates two-dimensional features, as seen on photographs or images, to the actual three-dimensional microstructure. Common measurements include grain size, inclusion rating, phase determination, and density of dislocations. E.E. Underwood has described the basic measurement techniques and their...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... structural features of a material using any one analysis technique. Therefore, many techniques that can be used to provide information about specific microstructural features have been developed. It is important to know what factors are important in any application before undertaking a program of structural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005414
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... allow modeling of microstructural evolution on the mesoscale. In this methodology, simulation is conducted on the length scale of the microstrutural features (e.g., grains). Using the mesoscale approach, microstructures and their distributions can be predicted rather than mean values, which have...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) approach enables essentially simultaneous examination of microstructural features through imaging from lower magnifications to atomic resolution and the acquisition of chemical and crystallographic information from small regions of the thin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... It discusses the factors on which the structures developed during plastic deformation depend. These factors include crystal structure, amount of deformation, composition, deformation mode, and deformation temperature and rate. The article illustrates the microstructural features that appear after...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... article illustrates the use of carbon restoration on decarburized spring steels. Different geometric models for carbide formation are shown schematically. The article also describes the different microstructural features such as grain size, microcracks, microsegregation, and banding. carbides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... alloys, namely, alpha and near-alpha titanium alloys, beta and near-beta titanium alloys, and alpha-beta titanium alloys. It also describes the general microstructural features of titanium alloys. microstructure physical properties titanium titanium alloys TITANIUM AND ITS ALLOYS are used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract Fracture surfaces are fragile and subject to mechanical and environmental damage that can destroy microstructural features. This article discusses the importance of care and handling of fractures and the factors that need to be considered during the preliminary visual examination. It...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... elongation would show a similar trend, however, with values much less than percent reduction in area. Much work has been done to develop empirical equations for ferrite-pearlite steels that relate strength and toughness to microstructural features, for example, grain size and percent of pearlite as well...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... equal to the volume fraction, V V , as long as the sectioning plane intersects the structural features at random. Fig. 1 Synthetic microstructure of uniformly shaped, identical size spherical particles in a matrix phase. Test area is 12,100 mm 2 . Test lines, ten horizontal and ten vertical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... two terms on the RHS of Eq 36 . The second term is what underlies coarsening kinetics. Apart from these basic features, applications of the phase-field method for modeling microstructural evolution in alloy systems of practical interests face a number of difficult challenges. Some of them include...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... needs, numerous special processes have been developed for alloy- or material-class-specific applications to provide greatly enhanced properties. For example, advanced thermomechanical processes (TMP) are aimed primarily at tightly controlling one or more microstructural features in otherwise...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article summarizes the general features of microstructure evolution during the thermomechanical processing (TMP) of nickel-base superalloys and the challenges posed by the modeling of such phenomena. It describes the fundamentals and implementations of various modeling...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... commercial applications, thus improving product predictability. This article describes different equilibrium phase diagrams (unary, binary, and ternary) and microstructures, description terms, and general principles of reading alloy phase diagrams. Further, the article discusses plotting schemes; areas in a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009002
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of equiaxed subgrains (with low misorientations across their boundaries) contained within elongated primary grains ( Ref 2 , Ref 3 ). An example of such microstructural features for an aluminum-lithium alloy is shown in Fig. 1 . Furthermore, the dynamic-recovery process leads to low stresses at...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract The reflected light microscope is the most commonly used tool to study the microstructure of metals, composites, ceramics, minerals, and polymers. For the study of the microstructure of metals and alloys, light microscopy is employed in the reflected-light mode using either bright...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... problems that illustrate how the hierarchy of time and length scales associated with transport leads to the important features of cast microstructures. It includes equations for estimating microsegregation in cast alloys. solidification microstructure microsegregation cast alloys homogenization...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... simple equipment by personnel with moderate training. FRACTURE SURFACES are fragile and subject to mechanical and environmental damage that can destroy microstructural features. Consequently, fracture specimens must be carefully handled during all stages of analysis. PHOTOGRAPHY of...