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microscopic visual examination

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract Visual examination, using the unaided eye or a low-power optical magnifier, is typically one of the first steps in a failure investigation. This article presents the guidelines for selecting samples for scanning electron microscope examination and optical metallography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... This article presents examples of the visual fracture examination that illustrate the procedure as it applies to failure analysis and quality determination. It describes the techniques and procedures for the visual and light microscopic examination of fracture surfaces with illustrations. The article also...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... selection, visual examination, microscopic examination, chemical analysis, and mechanical tests. The article explains corrosion fatigue of tubing of heat exchangers caused by aggressive environment and cyclic stress. It also discusses the effects of design, welding practices, and elevated temperatures...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract This article describes various evaluation techniques of fractography such as visual inspection, macroscopic and microscopic examinations that are used to resolve different aspects of failure. It gives a brief description and pictorial representation of various defects leading...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... photography as well as other special techniques. digital photography failure analysis field photographic documentation fractured surface laboratory photographic documentation macrophotography microscopic photography photographic equipment visual examination FAILURE ANALYSIS...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005798
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... weighed or submitted for combustion analysis. Shims should not be handled barehanded prior to analysis, because this may leave fingerprints that can affect the accuracy of the carbon reading. carbon content carburizing electromagnetic testing hardness testing microscopic visual examination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... F.M. , Ind. Eng. Chem. , Vol 40 ( No. 1 ), 1948 , p 161 10.1021/ie50457a041 Visual and Microscopic Examination Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Differential Scanning Calorimetry Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy Chromatography...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... determine the location of the fracture origin. The visual inspection should be conducted both prior to and after cleaning or removal of surface contamination. The fracture should be examined with an optical or digital microscope at the critical regions of the origin, midfracture, and final fracture regions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article outlines the basic steps to be followed and the range of techniques available for failure analysis, namely, background data assembling, visual examination, microfractography, chemical analysis, metallographic examination, electron microscopy, electron microprobe...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and techniques that are applied to failure analysis, both in the field and in the laboratory. It discusses the processes involved in visual examination, field photographic documentation, and laboratory photographic documentation of failed components. The article describes the operating principles of each part...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... the preliminary visual examination, fracture-cleaning techniques, procedures for sectioning a fracture and opening secondary cracks, and the effect of nondestructive inspection on subsequent evaluation. Care and Handling of Fractures <xref rid="a0001832-ref1" ref-type="bibr">(Ref 1)</xref> Preliminary Visual...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... discontinuities. Visual inspection is the most widely used method for detecting and examining surface cracks. Visual inspection methods range from examination with the naked eye to the use of interference microscopes to measure the depth of scratches in the finish of finely polished and lapped surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... lighting and microscopic photography. Special techniques can be employed to deal with highly reflective conditions and are also described in this article. digital cameras failure analysis microscopic photography photographic lighting visual examination FAILURE ANALYSIS is an investigative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... Visually, translaminar fractures that fail under tensile loads, particularly those with some zero-degree or other off-axis plies, will exhibit considerable fiber pullout and have very irregular fracture surfaces. Scanning electron microscopic examination of the fiber end fractures of carbon and glass...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... analysis usually is the first and perhaps most important step in failure analysis. In many cases, the diagnosis can be made by visual examination, and testing is performed to confirm or contradict it. Many experimental nondestructive and destructive test techniques have been developed to measure damage...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... involves examination of the part at magnifications up to 10,000├Ś or higher, typically using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The critical features found during visual examination should be studied at high magnification. It is most important that the features at the origin(s) be examined. The shape...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... and coating application. If possible, the information should be obtained and analyzed before the coating failure is visually examined. Many coating failures are the result of insufficient surface preparation or faulty application. The inadequate surface preparation or application may occur as a result...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... the replicas are examined in transmission, it is difficult to visualize the actual topographical shapes; shadowing the replica usually eliminates this difficulty. A replica can be directly examined in a transmission electron microscope if it is sufficiently thin (of the order of 150 nm in thickness...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be missed if the observer is not vigilant. Inspection of the topographic features of the failed component should start with an unaided visual examination and proceed to higher and higher magnification. A magnifying glass followed by a low-power microscope is an invaluable aid in detection of small details...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003661
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... The following is a summary of the procedures described in detail in Ref 13 . Additional guidelines can be found in Ref 14 . Identification and Examination of Pits Visual Examination Visual examination of the corroded surface can be performed with the unaided eye or a low- power microscope...