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microscopic visual examination

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Visual examination, using the unaided eye or a low-power optical magnifier, is typically one of the first steps in a failure investigation. This article presents the guidelines for selecting samples for scanning electron microscope examination and optical metallography and for cleaning...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article presents examples of the visual fracture examination that illustrate the procedure as it applies to failure analysis and quality determination. It describes the techniques and procedures for the visual and light microscopic examination of fracture surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., visual examination, microscopic examination, chemical analysis, and mechanical tests. The article explains corrosion fatigue of tubing of heat exchangers caused by aggressive environment and cyclic stress. It also discusses the effects of design, welding practices, and elevated temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... photography as well as other special techniques. digital photography failure analysis field photographic documentation fractured surface laboratory photographic documentation macrophotography microscopic photography photographic equipment visual examination FAILURE ANALYSIS...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article describes various evaluation techniques of fractography such as visual inspection, macroscopic and microscopic examinations that are used to resolve different aspects of failure. It gives a brief description and pictorial representation of various defects leading...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... determine the location of the fracture origin. The visual inspection should be conducted both prior to and after cleaning or removal of surface contamination. The fracture should be examined with an optical or digital microscope at the critical regions of the origin, midfracture, and final fracture regions...
Image
Published: 01 January 1987
shown at 50×. Courtesy of G.F. Vander Voort and J.W. Bowman, Carpenter Technology Corporation. Additional comparisons of fractographs obtained by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy can be found in the article “Visual Examination and Light Microscopy” in this Volume. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 January 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0006845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-387-4
... Visual examination of fractures Nondestructive inspection Dimensional inspection Sectioning Optical microscope fractography Electron microscope fractography Metallography Mechanical property testing Alloy chemical analysis Corrodent chemical analysis Case-dependent...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article outlines the basic steps to be followed and the range of techniques available for failure analysis, namely, background data assembling, visual examination, microfractography, chemical analysis, metallographic examination, electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 January 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0006842
EISBN: 978-1-62708-387-4
... depth of field, color recognition, and texture observations than can be achieved with a camera lens or microscope lens. For these reasons, the value of a thorough visual examination with the unaided human eye should not be underestimated. Of course, visual examination at low magnifications...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... discontinuities. Visual inspection is the most widely used method for detecting and examining surface cracks. Visual inspection methods range from examination with the naked eye to the use of interference microscopes to measure the depth of scratches in the finish of finely polished and lapped surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... that are applied to failure analysis, both in the field and in the laboratory. It discusses the processes involved in visual examination, field photographic documentation, and laboratory photographic documentation of failed components. The article describes the operating principles of each part of a professional...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract Fracture surfaces are fragile and subject to mechanical and environmental damage that can destroy microstructural features. This article discusses the importance of care and handling of fractures and the factors that need to be considered during the preliminary visual examination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... environments for coating failure analysis. chromatography differential scanning calorimetry electrochemical impedance spectroscopy Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy laboratory corrosion testing microscopic visual examination scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... lighting and microscopic photography. Special techniques can be employed to deal with highly reflective conditions and are also described in this article. digital cameras failure analysis microscopic photography photographic lighting visual examination FAILURE ANALYSIS is an investigative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... is the first and perhaps most important step in failure analysis. In many cases, the diagnosis can be made by visual examination, and testing is performed to confirm or contradict it. Many experimental nondestructive and destructive test techniques have been developed to measure damage levels in composites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... Visually, translaminar fractures that fail under tensile loads, particularly those with some zero-degree or other off-axis plies, will exhibit considerable fiber pullout and have very irregular fracture surfaces. Scanning electron microscopic examination of the fiber end fractures of carbon and glass...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 January 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0006844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-387-4
... with the microscopic study of fracture surfaces under magnification, but even the most detailed fractography will not provide a metallurgical root cause if the primary failed component is not subjected to analysis. Therefore, any initial visual examination should strive to identify the existence of potential primary...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... and transported and can be readily examined in the transmission electron, scanning electron, or light microscope (see the article “Visual Examination and Light Microscopy” in this Volume). Use of a replica is of great importance when the fracture surface to be studied is located on a large structure, vessel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003661
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... in Ref 13 . Additional guidelines can be found in Ref 14 . Identification and Examination of Pits Visual Examination Visual examination of the corroded surface can be performed with the unaided eye or a low- power microscope. The corroded surface is usually photographed, and the size, shape...