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microscopic photography

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... surface laboratory photographic documentation macrophotography microscopic photography photographic equipment visual examination Abstract This article reviews photographic principles, namely, visual examination, field photographic documentation, and laboratory photographic documentation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... lighting and microscopic photography. Special techniques can be employed to deal with highly reflective conditions and are also described in this article. digital cameras failure analysis microscopic photography photographic lighting visual examination FAILURE ANALYSIS is an investigative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
..., and selection of lens aperture in a microscopic system. It illustrates the lighting techniques employed in photography and highlights the use of different films. The article concludes with a list of auxiliary equipment used in fracture surface photography. aperture size cameras fractography fracture...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in microfractography. Subtle fracture-surface details are easily damaged. Low-magnification stereo and monocular microscopes with attached cameras are suitable for photography of fracture surfaces. In general, these types of microscopes will cover a much smaller field than is obtainable with the single...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... are suitable for photography of fracture surfaces. In general, these types of microscopes will cover a much smaller field than is obtainable with the single photographic objective lens. Some systems permit the eyepiece on the microscope to be removed to increase the size of the field. Whereas view camera...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... for Metals , 1969 , p 241 – 268 47. Photomicrography of Metals , Kodak Scientific Publication P-39 , 1971 48. Photography through the Microscope , Kodak Scientific Publication P-2 , 1980 49. Samuels L.E. , Photographic Methods , in Interpretative Techniques for Microstructural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... spot size, optimum specimen geometry, and column alignment. The specimen itself must be clean and conductive. Detailed information on SEM photography can be found in Ref 4 , 28 , 29 , and 30 . Most scanning electron microscopes have various signal-processing devices that modulate the image...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to 50 or 100×, it may be conducted by the unaided eye, a hand lens or magnifier, a low-power stereoscopic microscope, or a SEM. Macroscopic photography of up to 20× magnification requires a high-quality camera and special lenses; alternatively, a large magnifying glass may be used to enlarge a specific...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... material to the tool as observed by the unaided eye, light microscope, or scanning electron microscope ( Ref 10 ). The transfer of this material does not occur over the entire contact area, but near the tip of the tool. Experiments utilizing photography through transparent sapphire tools ( Ref 11...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... 13 is usually all that is required. Etching for Macrostructure Macroscopic examination differs from microscopic examination in that it employs very low magnifications (up to approximately 50×) and is used for the investigation of defects and structure of a large area as opposed...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., and etching (optional). THREE DISTINCT OPERATIONS are involved in determining the microstructure of metals with the use of a light optical microscope: preparation of a section surface; development of the structure on that surface, usually by chemical etching; and microscopic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... and adhesion. Additionally, plastic bags, sampling vials and syringes, and other supplies are often necessary to conduct a thorough failure analysis. Some common equipment is shown in Fig. 2 . Fig. 2 Portable thickness gages, field microscope, sampling bag, syringe and vial, replica tape and depth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... advanced technology to assist in a higher-fidelity approach to accident scene documentation and to create a model that assists in determining the cause of the accident. An sUAS may perform aerial photography and videography surveys, increasing the area of accident site documentation beyond the final...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... metallography sample preparation scanning electron microscope VISUAL EXAMINATION, using the unaided eye or low-power optical magnifier, is typically one of the first steps in a failure investigation. This subject is covered in the article “Visual Examination and Photography in Failure Analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... and surfaces. The applications of quantitative fractography for striation spacings, precision matching, and crack path tortuosity are also discussed. quantitative fractography scanning electron microscopes surface area surface roughness transmission electron microscopes THE PRINCIPAL OBJECTIVE...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003523
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are limited to studying a few pictures taken by others. The following are several of the methods used to document the condition of the accident scene. One of the first steps of any scene investigation is to obtain a permanent record of the accident scene by visual documentation, such as photography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... are not established or not repeatable in many cases. Lightening is also important, especially when in the photography of fracture surfaces (e.g., see the article “Photography in Failure Analysis” in Failure Analysis and Prevention, Volume 11 of ASM Handbook, 2002). Microscopic examination is carried out...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... considerably during the past few years ( Ref 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ). The main thrust has been directed toward ways to augment the two-dimensional information in the scanning electron microscope fractograph. Elevation information is needed in order to quantify the true magnitudes of features in the nonplanar...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... scanning electron microscopes have a useful feature called backscatter electron mode. While the secondary electrons, the normal imaging mode, provide topological information about the specimen, the backscatter mode gives information about topology as well as composition. But the user should not switch over...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... stresses. Perform microhardness testing to measure case depths, evaluate cold working, determine quality of weldments, and aid in identifying phases. Perform high-magnification metallographic examination using the electron microscope to study phases unresolvable with the light microscope...