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microscopic photography

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on the photographic equipment used in failure analysis and on film and digital photography. The article describes the basics of photography and the uses of different types of lighting in photography of a fractured surface. The article also addresses the techniques involved in macrophotography and microscopic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... lighting and microscopic photography. Special techniques can be employed to deal with highly reflective conditions and are also described in this article. digital cameras failure analysis microscopic photography photographic lighting visual examination FAILURE ANALYSIS is an investigative...
Image
Published: 01 January 1987
Fig. 2 Microscope systems equipped for photography. (a) Stereomicroscope equipped with an 80- × 105-mm (3 1 4 - × 4 1 4 -in.) camera back mounted on a rigid stand. Courtesy of Nikon, Inc., and Frank Fryer Company. (b) Macroscope mounted on a rigid stand. Courtesy of Wild More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to the failure. Ultimately, stereomicroscopic or digital microscopic examination and scanning electron microscopic examination will likely be used to determine the failure mechanism. Digital photography has become the standard photographic technique for failure analyses, as it offers several advantages over...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
..., and selection of lens aperture in a microscopic system. It illustrates the lighting techniques employed in photography and highlights the use of different films. The article concludes with a list of auxiliary equipment used in fracture surface photography. aperture size cameras fractography fracture...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... are suitable for photography of fracture surfaces. In general, these types of microscopes will cover a much smaller field than is obtainable with the single photographic objective lens. Some systems permit the eyepiece on the microscope to be removed to increase the size of the field. Whereas view camera...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 20 Scanning electron microscopy. (a) Typical scanning electron microscope used in failure analysis photography. (b) Scanning electron microscope photograph of a fatigue fracture More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Light Sources A variety of light sources are available for light microscopy. The low-voltage tungsten-filament lamp is used primarily with bench microscopes. The light intensity can be varied by controlling the power to the lamp according to need for observation. For photography, light sources...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... include correct accelerating voltage, small beam spot size, optimum specimen geometry, and column alignment. The specimen itself must be clean and conductive. Detailed information on SEM photography can be found in Ref 4 , 28 , 29 , and 30 . Most scanning electron microscopes have various signal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... Portable thickness gages, field microscope, sampling bag, syringe and vial, replica tape and depth micrometer, and sampling bag and marker The type of equipment used to perform the necessary measurements during a failure investigation at a jobsite is dependent on the substrate to which the coating...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at magnifications from 1 to 50 or 100×, it may be conducted by the unaided eye, a hand lens or magnifier, a low-power stereoscopic microscope, or a SEM. Macroscopic photography of up to 20× magnification requires a high-quality camera and special lenses; alternatively, a large magnifying glass may be used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... metallography sample preparation scanning electron microscope VISUAL EXAMINATION, using the unaided eye or low-power optical magnifier, is typically one of the first steps in a failure investigation. This subject is covered in the article “Visual Examination and Photography in Failure Analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... dating back to the sixteenth century to the state-of-the-art work in electron fractography and quantitative fractography. It also describes the applications and limitations of scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. electron fractography fractography microfractography...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... 13 is usually all that is required. Etching for Macrostructure Macroscopic examination differs from microscopic examination in that it employs very low magnifications (up to approximately 50×) and is used for the investigation of defects and structure of a large area as opposed...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... this conclusion is the transfer of workpiece material to the tool as observed by the unaided eye, light microscope, or scanning electron microscope ( Ref 10 ). The transfer of this material does not occur over the entire contact area, but near the tip of the tool. Experiments utilizing photography through...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the electron microscope to study phases unresolvable with the light microscope. Microprobe any critical abnormalities, such as inclusions and segregations, that are too small for bulk analysis. Use x-ray techniques to determine: (a) level of residual stress; and (b) the relative amounts of phases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... be examined under the microscope. This article describes those nondestructive metallographic procedures used both in the field and in the laboratory. Background Field metallography is an important tool and is practiced around the world. Some countries have developed standard practices for field...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... investigation is to obtain a permanent record of the accident scene by visual documentation, such as photography and/or videography and scanning. It is important that visual documentation be performed as early as possible, preferably prior to any altering of the scene. Although further visual documentation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006748
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... or working curve. absorbance (A). The logarithm to the base 10 dc intermittent noncapacitive arc. of the reciprocal of the transmittance. The analytical electron microscopy (AEM). The preferred term for photography is optical activation analysis. A method of chemical technique of materials analysis...