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microscopic examination

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article presents examples of the visual fracture examination that illustrate the procedure as it applies to failure analysis and quality determination. It describes the techniques and procedures for the visual and light microscopic examination of fracture surfaces with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... lighting and microscopic photography. Special techniques can be employed to deal with highly reflective conditions and are also described in this article. digital cameras failure analysis microscopic photography photographic lighting visual examination FAILURE ANALYSIS is an investigative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... microscopic examination, which showed the cracks to have been produced by stress-corrosion cracking of the material. While the specific cause of the stress-corrosion cracking was not investigated, it is suggested that there must have been a spillage of corrosive fluid on the bolt prior to heat treatment. As a...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... list the etchants for macroscopic examination and microscopic examination of nonferrous metals and special-purpose alloys. etching grinding macroscopic examination metallographic techniques microscopic examination mounting nonferrous metals polishing sectioning special-purpose alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Visual examination, using the unaided eye or a low-power optical magnifier, is typically one of the first steps in a failure investigation. This article presents the guidelines for selecting samples for scanning electron microscope examination and optical metallography and for cleaning...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article describes various evaluation techniques of fractography such as visual inspection, macroscopic and microscopic examinations that are used to resolve different aspects of failure. It gives a brief description and pictorial representation of various defects leading to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Metallographic examination is one of the most important procedures used by metallurgists in failure analysis. Typically, the light microscope (LM) is used to assess the nature of the material microstructure and its influence on the failure mechanism. Microstructural examination can be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., measuring the amount, size, and spacing of constituents, using the light optical microscope. The discussion covers the examination of microstructures using different illumination methods and includes a comparison between light optical images and scanning electron microscopy images of microstructure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003842
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article examines the high-temperature oxidation of silica-forming ceramics under constant temperature and cyclic conditions. The effects of water vapor, impurities, and molten salts are discussed. The article describes the oxidation and corrosion of silica-forming composites...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Microscopic examination of fatigue fracture surfaces (such as in an SEM) may show the existence of fatigue striations. Fatigue striations, the most definitive evidence of fatigue crack growth, are microscopic ridges formed by slip within the plastic zone ahead of the crack. Examples of fatigue striations in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... x-ray analysis. Fig. 9 Schematic showing method for producing extraction replicas and surface replicas for scanning electron microscope examination Liquid epoxy resins, acrylic resins, and silicone compounds are also available for making surface replicas for SEM investigations; a small...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... specimen-holder chamber of the microscope. Transparency to electrons is provided by plastic or carbon replicas of the fracture surface. Fractures are usually too rough to permit electrolytic thinning although alternative and more direct techniques for the examination of ion-milled, thin-foil transverse...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
.... Most of the microscopical studies of metals in the early 1900s were limited to examinations of polished specimens. In the 1930s, a number of investigators recognized that the properties of steels could be correlated with the macroscopic coarseness or fineness of the fracture surface. For example, Arpi...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... microscopic examination. The effectiveness of the examination is dependent upon these prior steps. Improper specimen preparation will impair examination and may result in artifact structures being confused as true structure. Etching must also be performed properly, although poor etch results are usually...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...% Cr plus other elements to produce ferritic, martensitic, austenitic, duplex, or precipitation-hardenable grades. Procedures used to prepare wrought stainless steels for macroscopic and microscopic examination are similar to those used for carbon and alloy steels and for tool steels. However, certain...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... For the same reason, replicas may not be limited with respect to thickness or restricted to those materials that have no details of their own on a scale that would confuse the microscope image. Replicas are especially useful in examining white ceramics, where the markings on fracture surfaces are...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... material properties should be conducted. This typically involves fractography and microscopic examination followed by evaluation of the chemical composition, mechanical properties, and microstructure. It should be remembered that one test is worth many expert opinions, and actual data are more meaningful...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... coarse-grained materials, where this appearance is visually evident. Dimpled intergranular fracture could be easily mistaken for pure brittle intergranular fracture if high-magnification fractography is not performed to examine for microscopic void formation in the grain boundaries. This mechanism of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Notes regarding the condition of the evidence should be made, and measurements should be taken as deemed necessary. Some of the types of nondestructive examinations that may be performed on the evidence include: Visual examination Physical measurements Microscopic examination Light...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) approach enables essentially simultaneous examination of microstructural features through imaging from lower magnifications to atomic resolution and the acquisition of chemical and crystallographic information from small regions of the thin...