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microscopic aspects

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and process variables for which sound extrusions can be obtained. The article concludes with a discussion on the state-of-the-art of coextrusion that assists in developing process models, which accurately describe both the macroscopic and microscopic aspects of a process. billet configurations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the numerical simulation of the forming of aluminum alloy sheet metals. The macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the plastic behavior of aluminum alloys are reviewed. The article presents constitutive equations suitable for the description of aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... from a microscopic part of a solid specimen bombarded by a beam of accelerated electrons. It provides information on the various aspects of energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and wavelength-dispersive spectrometry (WDS), and elucidates the qualitative analysis of the major constituents of EDS and WDS...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract This article describes various evaluation techniques of fractography such as visual inspection, macroscopic and microscopic examinations that are used to resolve different aspects of failure. It gives a brief description and pictorial representation of various defects leading...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the various aspects relating to the selection and preparation of ultrathin-section specimens of fiber-reinforced polymeric composites for examination by transmitted light microscopy. It provides information on the contrast-enhancement methods used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... The interactions result in certain technical outputs or, when economic aspects are included, certain system outputs. The finishing method is shown as a system in Fig. 2 . Fig. 2 Systems approach for the manufacturing process When the microscopic process interactions are understood, the finishing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... inputs define the microscopic aspects of a finishing operation, especially the thermal and mechanical interactions that condition the final surface integrity. These microscopic aspects can be measured macroscopically with forces, power, energy, or temperature transducers during the finishing operation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Quantitative image analysis Field measurements (stereology) Object measurements (feature measurement) Area fraction Area Area percent Length ASTM E 112 grain size Width Count Aspect ratio Perimeter Feret measurements Mean intercept distance Perimeter Mean particle surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
.... According to the measuring principles, at present there are three different types of optical instruments: optical microscopy, confocal microscopy, and optical interferometry. Optical Microscopy The optical microscope, often referred to as a light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... Measuring Surface Topography Because the basic types of surface geometry are caused by different factors and tend to have different relationships to the performance of the component, it is conventional to consider them separately during analysis. In general, if control of aspects of component...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... environments for coating failure analysis. chromatography differential scanning calorimetry electrochemical impedance spectroscopy Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy laboratory corrosion testing microscopic visual examination scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-Electron Microscope Fractographs AT LOW MAGNIFICATIONS, the features in scanning electron microscope (SEM) fractographs strongly resemble the aspects of the fracture apparent to the naked eye; but at high magnifications, more detail is visible which needs to be categorized and interpreted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... to overlook the macro aspect of the analysis and go straight to the cross-sectioning or electron-microscopic portions of the analysis. All forms of microscopy are complementary to each other. Photo studio and macroimaging work are at the heart of any research project or investigation. This can be the most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... low magnification are then described. Typical microscopic features observed on structural metals are presented subsequently, followed by a brief discussion on fatigue in polymers and polymer-matrix composites. engineering components fatigue fracture fractography metals polymer-matrix...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article commences with a summary of fatigue processes and mechanisms. It focuses on fractography of fatigue. Characteristic fatigue fracture features that can be discerned visually or under low magnification are described. Typical microscopic features observed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... appearance dating back to the sixteenth century to the state-of-the-art work in electron fractography and quantitative fractography. It also describes the applications and limitations of scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. electron fractography fractography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
..., and the general features of ductile and brittle fracture modes. fractography fracture modes scanning electron microscopy specimen preparation THE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE has unique capabilities for analyzing surfaces. A beam of electrons moves in an x - y pattern across a conductive specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... of 1000 A/mm 2 and temperatures down t 1.5 K—all of these are crucial aspects of our present superconducting magnet technology. Elsewhere in the same article he describes the melting of superconducting wires following an abrupt transition from the superconducting to the normal state and perhaps...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... lighting and microscopic photography. Special techniques can be employed to deal with highly reflective conditions and are also described in this article. digital cameras failure analysis microscopic photography photographic lighting visual examination FAILURE ANALYSIS is an investigative...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in the as-polished condition. Examination of a properly polished specimen before etching may reveal structural aspects, such as porosity, cracks, and nonmetallic inclusions. In certain nonferrous alloys, grain size can be revealed adequately in the as-polished condition using polarized light. Electrolytic Etching...