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microscope optimization

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...-light microscopy and optimization of microscope conditions. Examples of composite ultrathin sections analyzed using transmitted-light microscopy contrast methods are also presented. contrast-enhancement methods fiber-reinforced polymeric composites grinding microscope optimization mounting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., it turns out that the resolution can be improved, and the factor 1.21 can be reduced to as low as 0.7 in favorable circumstances. (Notice that a similar calculation is used, with an alternative derivation, to arrive at the resolution limit of the scanning electron microscope). Using the optimal aperture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... after the invention of the microscope in1860. England 1886 Electrolytic refining of aluminum (the Hall-Héroult process) is invented independently by Charles Hall and Paul Héroult. United States, France 1908 First attempts at liquid treatment of cast iron with FeSi, Ca, and V by Geilenkirchen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... is a consideration in achieving the optimal illumination of the specimen. Generally, a uniformly illuminated object field exactly the size of the field of view is desired. The light should be adjustable in intensity, color, and polarization. In reflected light microscopes, special illumination techniques can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... the various signals generated. The scanning transmission electron microscope is closely related to the conventional transmission electron microscope. The scanning Auger microscope is designed to optimize information obtained from the Auger electron signal; see the section “Auger Electron Spectroscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article focuses on laboratory atomic force microscopes (AFMs) used in ambient air and liquid environments. It begins with a discussion on the origin of AFM and development trends occurring in AFM. This is followed by a section on the general principles of AFM and a comprehensive...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... for optimizing depth of field. Fig. 13 Line scan across a jagged fracture surface. See text for details. The depth of field of a scanning electron microscope is very good in comparison with an optical microscope. The difference in the two microscopes is illustrated by comparison of Fig. 14...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... dynamic range image processing Fig. 28 Computer-controlled digital microscopic high-resolution Z-stack image of exemplar crankshaft fracture with light-emitting diode ring light illumination Fig. 29 Computer-controlled digital microscopic optical-SEM Z-stack image of exemplar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... domains important for the properties of both hard and soft magnetic materials. For optimal soft magnetic properties, ease of domain switching is necessary; therefore, in many cases high domain wall mobility is beneficial. Hard magnetic materials, on the other hand, benefit from immobility of domain walls...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... lighting and microscopic photography. Special techniques can be employed to deal with highly reflective conditions and are also described in this article. digital cameras failure analysis microscopic photography photographic lighting visual examination FAILURE ANALYSIS is an investigative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., and fatigue fracture with illustrations. It discusses microanalysis with a focus on the method of light microscopy and includes information of scanning electron microscope in fractography. The article also explains the characteristics of solidification, transformation, deformation structures...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on the photographic equipment used in failure analysis and on film and digital photography. The article describes the basics of photography and the uses of different types of lighting in photography of a fractured surface. The article also addresses the techniques involved in macrophotography and microscopic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... technique for the specific analysis objectives with a given composite material. The article opens with a discussion of macrophotography and microscope alignment, and then goes on to describe various illumination techniques that are useful for specific analysis requirements. These techniques include bright...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... method may be managed efficiently through casual relationships. Efficient achievement or quantum improvements of the technology drivers described above result when the four input elements are managed simultaneously to optimize the microscopic process interactions ( Ref 8 , 9 ). Whenever possible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract The reflected light microscope is the most commonly used tool to study the microstructure of metals, composites, ceramics, minerals, and polymers. For the study of the microstructure of metals and alloys, light microscopy is employed in the reflected-light mode using either bright...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... a light microscope and a video camera. The camera signal goes through the digitization step, and the resulting digital image is stored in the computer memory. At this point, if no further processing is required, the image can be output to a suitable printer. In many situations, however, some degree...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... from optical microscopes. The operator faces the problem of how to optimize the choice of the camera resolution for the recorded image. Older systems used mainly square masks of size 256 by 256, 512 by 512, or 1024 by 1024 pixels. Currently, simple CCD cameras offer resolutions of 640 by 480 or 768...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
...-for-additive-manufacturing (DFAM) principles are design optimization (DO) and simulation-driven design (SDD). In line with the adoption of AM processes by industry and extensive research efforts in the research community, this article focuses on powder-bed fusion for metal AM and material extrusion for polymer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., and fidelity that help to define our current usage of the term focused . The population of FIB instrumentation has grown steadily, and it now represents a substantial fraction of the wider “charged particle beam” family that includes scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) and transmission electron...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... and molecules. This article focuses on the principles and applications of high sputter rate dynamic SIMS for depth profiling and bulk impurity analysis. It provides information on broad-beam instruments, ion microprobes, and ion microscopes, detailing their system components with illustrations. The article...