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microscope alignment

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... microscopy technique for the specific analysis objectives with a given composite material. The article opens with a discussion of macrophotography and microscope alignment, and then goes on to describe various illumination techniques that are useful for specific analysis requirements. These techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.9781627081771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...°. Magnetic contrast results from magnetization aligned with the tilt axis. Fig. 30 Scanning electron microscope with polarization analysis (SEMPA). (a) The unpolarized primary electrons are rastered across the sample, emitting spin-polarized secondary electrons (SE). The spin-polarization...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... and toughness of transverse specimens of conventional HATS. This alignment of sulfides and larger carbides also takes place in hot working of powder metallurgy (PM) HATS, especially in sulfurized grades and steels made from coarser particles. In coarse powder particles the carbide growth during solidification...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... discontinuities. Visual inspection is the most widely used method for detecting and examining surface cracks. Visual inspection methods range from examination with the naked eye to the use of interference microscopes to measure the depth of scratches in the finish of finely polished and lapped surfaces...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... discontinuities. Visual inspection is the most widely used method for detecting and examining surface cracks. Visual inspection methods range from examination with the naked eye to the use of interference microscopes to measure the depth of scratches in the finish of finely polished and lapped surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... with optical or scanning electron microscopes, such as robotic polishers ( Ref 15 ) or micromilling machines ( Ref 16 ), have also been developed to reduce the time required for sectioning. Material can also be removed automatically using focused ion beam techniques ( Ref 17 , Ref 18 , Ref 19 , Ref 20...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... their atoms with good alignment to the incident beam (left) or with bad alignment (right). Fig. 33 Charging mechanisms for the focused ion beam (left) and scanning electron microscope (right). λ = characteristic escape depth for secondary electrons Fig. 34 Scanning strategies for milling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Micromilling apparatus used for sectioning the aluminum-copper alloy. LVDT, linear variable differential transformer used to position the stage. Source: Ref 22 Fig. 13 Automated registration of images via a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT—not shown). The LVDT permits alignment...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... and scanning electron microscopy. For the same reason, replicas may not be limited with respect to thickness or restricted to those materials that have no details of their own on a scale that would confuse the microscope image. Replicas are especially useful in examining white ceramics, where the markings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... to the electron beam. Fig. 5 View of the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) camera in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) sample chamber for the experimental configuration used for conventional EBSD measurements. The EBSD phosphor screen, the sample, and the SEM pole piece are shown. Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...Depth of field of typical light microscope objectives Table 1 Depth of field of typical light microscope objectives Final magnification, diameters Objective Area of field (a) , μm Depth of field, μm Magnification, diameters Numerical aperture 100 5.6 0.20 (b...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
..., optimum specimen geometry, and column alignment. The specimen itself must be clean and conductive. Detailed information on SEM photography can be found in Ref 4 , 28 , 29 , and 30 . Most scanning electron microscopes have various signal-processing devices that modulate the image. Gamma modulation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0009222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the failure. Differential hardening which leaves the fillet soft can also help as can the use of an air-hardening steel. Fig. 2 Sharp corners in the two large countersunk holes of blanking die of manganese oil-hardening steel caused cracking. The excessive section change caused by aligning small...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is well preserved and if the analyst is knowledgeable, the fracture appearance reveals details of the loading events that culminated in fracture. An understanding of how cracks nucleate and grow microscopically to cause bulk (macroscale) fracture is an essential part of fractography. The ability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... on pedestal. (h) Cut slab of concrete (width: 3 cm, or 1.2 in.). (i) Optical microscope monitor view of weathered copper leaf (width: 4 cm, or 1.6 in.) exhibiting patina. Republished from Ref 3 with permission of Canadian Science Publishing (CSP); permission conveyed through Copyright Clearance Center, Inc...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... initiated cracking Alignment, vibration, balance High cycle, low stress: large fatigue zone; low cycle, high stress: small fatigue zone Attack morphology and alloy type must be evaluated Severity of exposure conditions may be excessive; check: pH, temperature, flow rate, dissolved oxidants...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... of interest must be treated to have as narrow a contrast (gray-level) range as possible. The light source in the microscope must then be aligned for even illumination. Most image analyzers have circuits to provide shading correction to even out variations across the screen. The gray-level range...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
...Resolution limits of currently available scanning electron microscopes compared with the optical microscope Table 1 Resolution limits of currently available scanning electron microscopes compared with the optical microscope Microscope Minimum resolution range,nm Maximum useful...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... microscope (TEM) images showing atomic wear on the silicon substrate. (a) An ~7.5 nm deep wear scar formed on silicon surface after sliding by a SiO 2 microsphere. Inset shows the AFM image of the wear scar. (b) Representative lattice resolved image in worn area marked with a box (dotted line...