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microscope alignment

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... technique for the specific analysis objectives with a given composite material. The article opens with a discussion of macrophotography and microscope alignment, and then goes on to describe various illumination techniques that are useful for specific analysis requirements. These techniques include bright...
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 29 Type II magnetic contrast using a scanning electron microscope originates from the Lorentz force deflection of primary electrons due to the magnetization within the specimen. The backscattered electrons are collected with contrast being proportional to the saturation magnetization More
Image
Published: 01 January 1993
Fig. 15 International Institute of Welding scheme for classifying microstructural constituents in ferritic steel weld metals with the optical microscope. Source: Ref 23 Category Abbreviation Primary ferrite PF  Grain boundary ferrite PF(G)  Intragranular polygonal More
Image
Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 15 Cleavage fracture in a notched impact specimen of hot-rolled 1040 steel broken at −196 °C (−321 °F), shown at three magnifications. The specimen was tilted in the scanning electron microscope at an angle of 40° to the electron beam. The cleavage planes followed by the crack show More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... specimens of conventional HATS. This alignment of sulfides and larger carbides also takes place in hot working of powder metallurgy (PM) HATS, especially in sulfurized grades and steels made from coarser particles. In coarse powder particles the carbide growth during solidification and cooling extends over...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... discontinuities. Visual inspection is the most widely used method for detecting and examining surface cracks. Visual inspection methods range from examination with the naked eye to the use of interference microscopes to measure the depth of scratches in the finish of finely polished and lapped surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... in terms of the thickness re- strain aging. formed by a diffusionless transformation of moved per unit of time or distance traversed. alignment. A mechanical or electrical adjust- the b phase. It is often dif cult to distinguish ment of the components of an optical device from acicular , although...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.9781627081771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., the residual carbide is easier to observe, particularly along grain boundaries (see Fig. 2 ). Etchants for microscopic examination of magnetic alloys Table 1 Etchants for microscopic examination of magnetic alloys No. Etchant composition (a) Procedure for use 1 Nital 1–6 mL HNO 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., and fatigue fracture with illustrations. It discusses microanalysis with a focus on the method of light microscopy and includes information of scanning electron microscope in fractography. The article also explains the characteristics of solidification, transformation, deformation structures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... include correct accelerating voltage, small beam spot size, optimum specimen geometry, and column alignment. The specimen itself must be clean and conductive. Detailed information on SEM photography can be found in Ref 4 , 28 , 29 , and 30 . Most scanning electron microscopes have various signal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article provides information on the basic components of a light microscope, including the illumination system, collector lens, and optical and mechanical components. It describes optical performance in terms of image aberrations, resolution, and depth of field. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
...), a reality. Improvements in material-removal methods also offer a great opportunity for making 3-D analyses accessible to most materials scientists and engineers. Automated serial sectioning machines used in conjunction with optical or scanning electron microscopes, such as robotic polishers ( Ref 15...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... with that of scanning Auger microscopes, and lists the applications and limitations of SEM. Jominy testing optical microscopes scanning electron microscopes scanning electron microscopy X-ray spectrometers Overview Introduction The first commercial scanning electron microscope became available...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... the microscope image. Replicas are especially useful in examining white ceramics, where the markings on fracture surfaces are often obscured by light scattered from subsurface details. (Occasionally this may be a disadvantage, however, as when subsurface stress modifiers are involved.) Finally, examination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., and fidelity that help to define our current usage of the term focused . The population of FIB instrumentation has grown steadily, and it now represents a substantial fraction of the wider “charged particle beam” family that includes scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) and transmission electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... opportunity for making 3D microscopy a justifiable effort to more materials scientists and engineers. Semiautomated serial-sectioning machines used in conjunction with optical or scanning electron microscopes, such as the micromilling apparatus at Northwestern University ( Ref 5 ), have been developed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (SEM), transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and other specialized methods. The bulk of the observations by far are done with low-magnification optical microscopy, often using a stereographic microscope, and with higher-magnification SEM. The primary goal of most fractographic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... microscope and describes transmission Kikuchi diffraction. It begins with a discussion on the origins of EBSD and the collection of EBSD patterns. This is followed by sections providing information on EBSD spatial resolution and system operation of EBSD. Various factors pertinent to perform an EBSD...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0009222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The excessive section change caused by aligning small and large holes emphasizes need for redesign. Fig. 3 Faint cracks in 102 by 95 mm (4 by 3.75 in.) die of manganese oil-hardening steel are exaggerated by magnetic powder. During quenching, excessive stresses were set up between the body...