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microscale friction test

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... indicates, the work reported in Ref 13 supports such a model of dislocation interaction to create a cleavage nucleus. Specimens tested at 77 K could be made to flow plastically or to fail in a brittle manner, depending on specimen orientation. Specimen axes removed from 〈1,1,0〉 failed in a brittle manner...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-scanning, and scratch tests. After a discussion on gear scuffing, information on the material-dependent adhesive wear and factors preventing adhesive wear is provided. adhesive wear coefficient of friction galling metal sliding contacts scoring scuffing seizure scratch tests twist compression...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... economy are well documented. For example, the importance of investigating failures was vividly illustrated in the pioneering efforts of the Wright Brothers in developing self-propelled flight. In fact, while Wilbur was traveling in France in 1908, Orville was conducting flight tests for the U.S. Army...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or wedge-shaped cracks at grain triple points • Reaction scales or internal precipitation • Some cold flow in last stages of failure Contributing factors • Load exceeded the strength of the part • Check for proper alloy and processing by hardness check or destructive testing, chemical analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... dynamic response of equipment. The article reviews the determination of friction coefficient using laboratory monitoring methods, indirect measurements, and the inverse method. It considers the determination of the interface heat-transfer coefficient by using the ring test and computer simulations. The...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article reviews the various types of mechanical testing methods, including hardness testing; tension testing; compression testing; dynamic fracture testing; fracture toughness testing; fatigue life testing; fatigue crack growth testing; and creep, stress-rupture, and stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... article for this task. The ring compression test is well suited for determining the friction factor needed for calculation of forming load and as an easily performed way of getting a reasonable value for flow stress. Prediction of fracture in bulk deformation processes is characterized with the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... potential to control phase transformation during ECAE. Equal-channel angular extrusion provides very strong hardening effects for metals and alloys. Typical results of tensile testing after different passes via routes A and C are shown in Fig. 16 for Armco Iron. Indexes of materials strength such as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... summarized in this article. The most common testing techniques for workability prediction are discussed in “Bulk Workability Testing” in this Handbook. Much greater detail on these tests and on workability tests specific to a particular bulk forming process, such as forging, are given in subsequent articles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... occur in combined rolling and sliding problems often generate a local 3D stress state, and failures are often associated with the attendant sliding friction. Notches, which are frequent crack-initiation sites, when subjected to external loads often generate triaxial stress states and locally embrittle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... type, sequence, magnitude, and number of the fluctuating (multiaxial) stresses often in combination with complex environmental influences (temperature, corrosion, wear). These factors complicate the laboratory simulation of actual application conditions and often require full-sized component tests...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... (roughened areas), which have propagated along the length of a specimen of annealed steel sheet that was tested in tension. Not polished, not etched. Actual size The transition from undeformed to deformed material at the Lüders front can be seen at low magnification ( Fig. 12 ). At higher magnification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... empirical equations for microstructure evolution were derived from data obtained from simple laboratory tests carried out under nearly constant Z conditions. In industrial processing, local regions within the stock undergo rapid changes in Z as a result mainly of heat transfer to the working tools...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Processing that leads to directional grain or crystal orientation can result in moduli of approximately 124 to 310 GPa (about 18 to 45 × 10 6 psi), depending on the relation of grain or crystal orientation to testing direction. Physical properties (electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and thermal...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... can result from residual sulfate, chloride, or unoxidized carbon from decomposition of organics. Metal contaminants that act as “unintentional” dopants can be introduced from these organics, either intrinsic to the organic solvent or arising from later processing and/or filtration steps. Ashing tests...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.9781627082907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... stained color and reduced adhesion. This may particularly affect aged adhesion results. Table 5 Typical properties of thick-film alumina (96% Al 2 O 3 ) Property Conditions Property value Test Surface finish (CLA), μm (μin.) As fired <0.6 (25) Profilometer 0.75 mm (0.030 in...