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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Figure 1 shows an inclusion that caused tool breakage during machining of an aluminum die casting, and Fig. 2 shows the fracture (intentionally created) through the inclusion. A scanning electron micrograph of the defect is shown in Fig. 3 . An x-ray spectrum obtained from this defect reveals that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... was softer (53 to 56 HRC) and etches darker. The unaffected matrix is beneath this zone, off the edge of the micrograph. Figure 1(b) shows the extreme surface at high magnification. Incipient melting can be observed to a depth of approximately 10 μm. The light-etching zone contains untempered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... that can be used for advanced component applications of P/M superalloys ( Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1 Micrograph of the P/M superalloy René 88DT processed to a uniform intermediate grain size The development of controlled grain sizes coarser than ASTM average 5 in P/M superalloys can also be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Behind the front, grain boundaries contain a high density of dislocations, and dislocation tangles have begun to form within the grains. Fig. 13 A Lüders front in ultrafine-grained low-carbon steel. The front was moving to the left. Thin-foil transmission electron micrograph. Original magnification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Selected scanning electron micrography (SEM) micrographs of retrieved modular connections from different orthopaedic implants showing evidence of corrosion attack. (a) SEM of head taper near the free surface (top). Note the machining lines at the top near the exterior of the device and the corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... specimens prepared parallel to the cross section of the sheet or strip ( Fig. 5b ). The structural elements or deformation cells in a heavily cold-rolled sheet or strip are in the form of thin ribbons lying roughly parallel to the rolling plane of the sheet or strip. Optical micrographs will show the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... metallic tape; their position and orientation can be indicated on both the macrophotograph and low-magnification micrographs to facilitate correlations. At higher magnifications, these overviews can be used as maps to pinpoint location and orientation. Replicas and other nonconductive specimens are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...-emission scanning electron microscope 0.3–1.0 400,000–1,000,000× Optical microscope 100–200 1,000–2,000× Another way to compare SEM and OM resolution is to assess micrographs of fine pearlite, as shown in Fig. 14 . The optical micrograph ( Fig. 14a ) of a pearlitic gray iron specimen was...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Fractographs Material Figure numbers Types of Atlas illustrations Photographs Macrographs/micrographs Light fractographs SEM fractographs TEM fractographs Total illustrations Irons 1–28 … … 2 26 … 28 Gray irons 29–35 1 2 1 4 … 7 Ductile iron 36–97 … 14 4 44...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... treatment with addition of certain alloys to promote pearlite as a major part of the matrix. Fig. 2 Optimum range for carbon and silicon contents for CG iron Fig. 1 Typical microstructures of CG irons. (a) Optical micrograph. Etched with nital. (b) SEM micrograph showing true shape of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005966
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... ( Ref 9 ). Figure 5 is a detailed micrograph of a transverse, near-surface section of a decarburized, oxidized alloy steel. The upper sections of the material in this micrograph show two oxide layers. Iron oxide generally forms in a layered sequence of FeO, Fe 3 O 4 , and Fe 2 O 3 , with FeO forming...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... ), although animal (e.g., rat) osteoblasts are also used. Figure 2 shows a scanning electron micrograph of primary human osteoblasts attached to the surface of a calcium-phosphate-coated poly (carbonate urethane) substrate. Commonly examined variables include the cell growth, proliferation, metabolism...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the best accuracy with minimum effort ( Ref 3 ). To perform this test, a clear plastic grid with a number of systematically spaced points (usually crosses are employed, where the “point” is the intersection of the arms), typically 9, 16, 25, 49, 64, or 100, is placed on a micrograph, on a projection...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... , along with micrographs of representative structures. The microstructure of 99.95 wt% Al has the typical equiaxed structure of a pure metal. The microstructure of the 8 wt% Si alloy shows long dendrites of primary α solid solution surrounded by the eutectic microconstituent. In contrast, when the primary...
Book Chapter

By Justin Heimsch
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... provide a general overview of the thixocasting process and to discuss the concepts that are important to the practical application of this technology. Fig. 1 Micrograph showing typical α-phase morphology found in reheated magnetohydrodynamic material. Specimen has been etched to darken the eutectic...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... experimental (scatter point) data showing microsegregation of (a) chromium and (b) molybdenum in Fe-13.2Co-11.1Ni-3.1Cr-1.2Mo-0.23C steel. Source: Ref 2 . Fig. 1 Optical micrographs of an aluminum alloy showing (a) microsegregation and (b) homo-genized structure. Source: Ref 1 . ...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., austenite; Gr, graphite Figure 17 shows a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph of graphite eutectic cell and prior austenitic dendrite structures in gray cast iron. Fig. 17 SEM micrograph showing graphite, eutectic cell, and prior dendrite structure in gray cast iron. Original...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... depth of field of the light microscope would limit direct examination to brittle that fractures ( Ref 2 ). Consequently, Zapffe initially defined the new field of fractography as the micrographic study of cleavage facets on fractured metal specimens ( Ref 2 ). Several years later, he generalized the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... liquid, and wetting of the surface. Coatings may contain voids that are due to outgassing, shrinkage, or topographical effects (e.g., shadowing). Metal coatings processed in air will also probably contain oxide inclusions. Fig. 1 Scanning electron micrographs of fracture cross sections of air...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... Fig. 10 Photograph of two carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic tensile-test bars—one unstressed and one stressed. The stressed bar was subjected to a force that yielded a 1.5% strain. Fig. 11 100 MHz scanning laser acoustic micrographs of the tensile bar samples shown in Fig. 10 . (a) In the...