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microcracks

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article describes the microcrack analysis of composite materials using bright-field illumination, polarized light, dyes, dark-field illumination, and epi-fluorescence. bright-field illumination composite materials dark-field illumination dyes epi-fluorescence microcrack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... in metals is caused by the simultaneous action of cyclic stress, tensile stress, and plastic strain. This article details the fundamental aspects of the stages of the fatigue failure process. These include cyclic plastic deformation prior to fatigue crack initiation, initiation of one or more microcracks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
..., and the formation and causes of microcracks. The article discusses the effects of alloying elements on hardenability, the effects of excessive retained austenite and massive carbides on fatigue resistance, the effects of residual stresses and internal oxidation on fatigue performance of carburized steels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
.... The article illustrates the use of carbon restoration on decarburized spring steels. Different geometric models for carbide formation are shown schematically. The article also describes the different microstructural features such as grain size, microcracks, microsegregation, and banding. carbides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002355
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... energy, γ. This summary covers materials that were well annealed before cycling. Fig. 16 Microcrack density in dependence on relative number of cycles in α-iron for two strain amplitudes. ε a , strain amplitude; N , number of cycles; N f , number of cycles to fracture Fig. 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... sequence, localized plastic deformation, and microcrack initiation and propagation of these irons. crack initiation crack propagation fractography malleable iron microcracking white cast iron Fracture sequence (increasing strain) illustrating localized plastic deformation and microcrack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...; and microcrack initiation and propagation. brittle fracture cleavage fracture fatigue cracks fatigue fracture ferritic ductile iron fractographs microcracking pearlitic ductile iron Brittle cleavage fracture of ductile iron spur gear (ASTM A536, grade 100-70-03) due to improper heat treatment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000618
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fracture, microcrack, and stair-step fracture surface of these alloys. cobalt alloys fatigue fracture fractograph surgical implants Fatigue fracture of a cast Vitallium (Co-30Cr-7Mo) surgical implant (side plate of Jewett nail) due to improper insertion. A tool used by the surgeon to contour...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... to the light path. The light is reflected from a half-mirror through the lens, off the sample, and back through the lens to the eye. Therefore, the flat surfaces are bright using this illumination technique, but any voids, microcracks, or indentations are darker because the light is reflected off the sample...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
...) of the ceramic by initiating microcracking at these locations. This problem can be reduced by sandwiching the ceramic specimen between two identical high-strength tungsten-carbide (WC) inserts and placing this whole assembly in the SHPB testing setup, as shown schematically in Fig. 3(b) . The main requirement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... the damage from interply arcing between carbon fibers and microcracking in the Kevlar stitch. In the lightning damage zone, there was significant microcracking and delamination, as can be seen in Fig. 4 . Figure 5 shows an area under the lightning strike zone that exhibited interply arcing, microcracking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002356
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... life and relevant factors Fig. 4 Cross section of a microcrack Fig. 5 Grain boundary (GB) effect on microcrack growth in an Al alloy. Source: Ref 4 Abstract This article summarizes fatigue phenomena in metallic materials. It discusses fatigue under variable-amplitude (VA...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...) thick and 50 to 80 μm (2 to 3 mils) thick chromium coatings relative to samples that were not smoothed. Chromium-plated samples baked in oil were much more corrosion resistant than samples baked in air. Both methods sealed pores or outer microcracks in the chromium, which improved the corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... of this, the strengthening flexibility for process zone toughening is appreciably less than that for the bridging mechanisms. Transformation, microcrack, and twin toughening are process zone mechanisms. Plastic deformation also provides process zone toughening, but it is characterized in a different manner...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Quasi-brittle fatigue crack propagation in 3.2-mm (0.13-in.) thick polycarbonate sheet. Arrow indicates direction of crack growth. At this thickness, polycarbonate shows features characteristic of both brittle (microcracking) and ductile (thinning and fibrillation) fracture. Note “river patterns...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... be observed in this micrograph. To highlight the microcracks in the aramid fiber facesheet, DYKEM Steel Red dye (Illinois Tool Works, Inc.) was applied on the surface of the composite ( Fig. 6b ) and was shown to penetrate through the facesheet to the core side ( Fig. 6a ). As a result of the dye penetration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003468
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Fig. 1 Initiation of fatigue microcracks in metal-matrix composites. (a) A fatigue microcrack initiated from a fractured Micral-20 (mullite-alumina) reinforcement particle in Comral- 85 (6061-20% Micral-20). Note that the reinforcement particle has fractured across its vertical equatorial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002366
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... plane for n ′ = 0.2 and K ′/σ y = 3.5. Source: Ref 35 Fig. 8 Predicted nonlinear growth of microcracks for 1045 steel for four different constant-amplitude fatigue lives. Completely reversed (a) torsional fatigue and (b) uniaxial fatigue. Source: Ref 58 Fig. 9 Orientation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... expansion between the matrix and reinforcement phases can produce stresses in the composite that, if sufficiently high, will result in the spontaneous microcracking of the material. Composite toughening can occur if these microcracks are not initiated until an external stress is applied to the system...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... composite (80×). Note the lack of contrast of the glass fabric when compared to the carbon fibers. Fig. 16 Dark-field image (200×) of a nylon fiber composite with Magnaflux Spotcheck Penetrant SKL-H (Magnaflux, Glenview, IL). The transverse fibers and microcracks appear red. This technique works...