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microcrack analysis

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article describes the microcrack analysis of composite materials using bright-field illumination, polarized light, dyes, dark-field illumination, and epi-fluorescence. bright-field illumination composite materials dark-field illumination dyes epi-fluorescence microcrack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... counts, fiber-orientation verification, resin-to-fiber ratio determination, void studies, and most microcrack investigations ( Fig. 2 ). Generally, it is advisable to observe all polished specimens with bright-field illumination before continuing with other illumination methods. Void analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000618
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fracture, microcrack, and stair-step fracture surface of these alloys. cobalt alloys fatigue fracture fractograph surgical implants Fig. 881, 882 Fatigue fracture of a cast Vitallium (Co-30Cr-7Mo) surgical implant (side plate of Jewett nail) due to improper insertion. A tool used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., nondestructive inspection techniques are employed to detect damage within the composite part. These inspection techniques include ultrasound and x-ray analysis. It is also important to assess damage that may have occurred at the microstructural level, and special specimen-preparation techniques have been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... but microcracked specimen for post-test quantification and analysis. Moreover, the rectangular pulse with its steep rise in stress level can impose a nonuniform strain rate during the elastic deformation of the ceramic due to the differences between the slopes of the imposed loading rate and the stress-strain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002355
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Abstract This article presents an overview of fatigue crack nucleation from the point of view of the material microstructure and its evolution during cycling. It describes the sites of microcrack nucleation at the free surfaces. The article discusses the relation of dislocation structures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002356
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... includes data on material fatigue properties and calculations, basically stress analysis problems. The third column includes information on the fatigue loads in service, the dynamic response of the structure, and the environment. All aspects of the input information have to be used for predictions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
..., initiation of one or more microcracks, propagation or coalescence of microcracks to form one or more microcracks, and propagation of one or more macrocracks. coalescence crack propagation cyclic stress fatigue crack initiation fatigue damage fatigue failure metals microcracks plastic strain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
..., and the formation and causes of microcracks. The article discusses the effects of alloying elements on hardenability, the effects of excessive retained austenite and massive carbides on fatigue resistance, the effects of residual stresses and internal oxidation on fatigue performance of carburized steels...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Thermal phenomena play a key role in the mechanics of surface finishing processes. This article provides information on the analysis and measurement of temperatures and associated thermal damage generated by finishing processes that are essential to the production of engineered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...-weight distribution and the associated averages. This is discussed in more detail in the article “ Characterization of Plastics in Failure Analysis ” in this Volume. Deformation and Fracture Under circumstances in which metals may be regarded as purely elastic, polymers may deform nonelastically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... this analysis, an ultrathin section (0.5 to 5 μm) must be developed from the honeycomb sandwich structure composite part to be able to use all of the contrast techniques of transmitted-light microscopy. Figure 1 shows an area of a honeycomb-cored sandwich structure composite cross section that is viewed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the random nature of most polymerization reactions. Thus, polymers are generally characterized by a molecular-weight distribution and the associated averages. This is discussed in more detail in the article “Characterization of Plastics in Failure Analysis” in this Volume. Deformation and Fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Abstract Microscopy is a valuable tool in materials investigations related to problem solving, failure analysis, advanced materials development, and quality control. This article describes the sample preparation techniques of composite materials. These techniques include mounting, rough...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... in the disciplines of stochastic geometry ( Ref 1 ), integral geometry and global analysis ( Ref 2 ), and differential geometry ( Ref 3 ). The stereological methods are completely general, and therefore they are also applicable to microstructures encountered in many other disciplines, including biology ( Ref 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Abstract This article provides a summary of the concepts discussed in the articles under the Section “Failure Analysis” in ASM Handbook, Volume 21: Composites. Most of the information in this Section is geared toward organic-matrix composites, although there is some information on failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... in reinforcing phases through transformations ( Ref 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ), microcracking ( Ref 10 , 11 ), and twinning, as well as plasticity ( Ref 13 , 14 ), and internal friction ( Ref 4 , 5 ). Toughening is manifest as a fracture resistance, Γ R , that increases with crack extension, Δ a ( Fig. 1 ) ( Ref 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... along the faces of microcracks Wedging of microcracks by debris particles Inelastic strains generated by dilatational and shear (phase) transformations Microcracking due to the release of thermal residual stresses Frictional sliding displacements along interfaces Viscous flow of glass...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... toughness and elongation to failure result in fewer microcracks due to thermal cycling and a more stable structure. Figure 3 compares microcracking of several CE and epoxy resins, all of which are space-qualified systems. The laminates were made using XN- 70A, a 690 GPa (100 × 10 6 psi) modulus pitch...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... oxides with ratios of more than 1 are not protective. Additional information about the PB ratio is available in the article “Gaseous Corrosion Mechanisms” in ASM Handbook , Volume 13A, 2003. Microribbons or Microcracks Chromium electrodeposits are not homogenous, because they contain...