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microcrack analysis

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000618
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... fracture, microcrack, and stair-step fracture surface of these alloys. cobalt alloys fatigue fracture fractograph surgical implants Fatigue fracture of a cast Vitallium (Co-30Cr-7Mo) surgical implant (side plate of Jewett nail) due to improper insertion. A tool used by the surgeon to contour...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... article illustrates the use of carbon restoration on decarburized spring steels. Different geometric models for carbide formation are shown schematically. The article also describes the different microstructural features such as grain size, microcracks, microsegregation, and banding. carbides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... micrograph. Outside-diameter surface is along right side of micrograph. Note slip banding (arrows) emanating from microcrack. Original magnification: 116 × The analysis revealed that during the hydroforming process, heavy biaxial strains were imparted to the sleeve wall, in the radius between the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Metallographic examination is one of the most important procedures used by metallurgists in failure analysis. Typically, the light microscope (LM) is used to assess the nature of the material microstructure and its influence on the failure mechanism. Microstructural examination can be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... stents are overlapped, because the damage caused between the contacting stents can lower corrosion and fatigue performance. Fretting damage is characterized by pitting, grooves, surface roughness, and microcracks ( Ref 21 ). An SEM image showing evidence of fretting damage in a modular hip implant at...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... microcracks in polycrystalline ceramics. Although pores are not as effective in concentrating stresses as cracks, they are a frequent cause of failure in polycrystalline ceramics. Glazed ceramics are interesting because origins can be in the glaze, at the glaze-body interface, or in the body. Reactions at...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 15) x = Dt where x is the penetration distance, D is the diffusion coefficient, and t is the time to form a microcrack. These equations (along with some simple substitutions) may be combined to yield the following result: (Eq 16) N i = A 2 ν D 0 · e ( Q...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the initiation and/or propagation of cracks and subsequent component or structural failure. Stress concentrations are ubiquitous, found in locations associated with geometric discontinuities such as sharp corners, weld toes, notches, undercuts, machining marks, scratches, microcracks, and so on, and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract This article describes testing and characterization methods of ceramics for chemical analysis, phase analysis, microstructural analysis, macroscopic property characterization, strength and proof testing, thermophysical property testing, and nondestructive evaluation techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... typical types of damage experienced for metallic components. This article discusses the processes involved in visual or macroscopic examination of damaged material; the interpretation of fracture features, corrosion, and wear damage features; and the analysis of base material composition. It covers the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... grinding, where sliding speeds are high (30 to 150 m/s). The high temperatures are an important source of several forms of damage on the machined surface. First, the transient temperatures contribute to residual stresses and microcracking on ground surfaces ( Ref 5 , 6 , 7 ). Second, the localized...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article presents examples of the visual fracture examination that illustrate the procedure as it applies to failure analysis and quality determination. It describes the techniques and procedures for the visual and light microscopic examination of fracture surfaces with...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... effect of viscoelasticity on the test methods used. Two common ways of evaluating viscoelasticity of plastics are by means of creep experiments and dynamic mechanical experiments. Graphic or tabular analysis of test data, time-temperature superposition, and empirical correlation methods are commonly...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... crack growth (propagation). Although compressive stress will not cause fatigue, compression loads can result in local tensile stresses. The process of fatigue failure consists of five stages. Cyclic plastic deformation prior to fatigue crack initiation Initiation of one or more microcracks...
Book Chapter

By Peter J. Blau
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... pumps and the propellers of “quiet” submarines. The rolling of one body over another, as in a rolling element bearing, can result in repeated stressing of the subsurface material, the nucleation of microcracks, and the eventual production of pits and spalls. Analysis of bearings and gears indicates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... compression, bending, torsion). Finally, the factors influencing the appearance of a fracture surface and various imperfections or stress raisers are described, followed by a root-cause failure analysis case history to illustrate some of these fractography concepts. brittle fracture crack nucleation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Engineering component and structure failures manifest through many mechanisms but are most often associated with fracture in one or more forms. This article introduces the subject of fractography and aspects of how it is used in failure analysis. The basic types of fracture processes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... discusses methods that may apply to any form of wear mechanism, because it is important to identify all mechanisms or combinations of wear mechanisms during failure analysis. The article concludes by presenting several examples of abrasive wear. abrasive wear crack growth failure analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... activation prior to chromium plating to ensure adhesion of the chromium to the inner layer. Corrosion of hard chromium deposits usually begins at microcracks or intersections of microcracks ( Ref 20 ). After moderate acid attack in hydrochloric, sulfuric, or acetic acid, the corrosion reveals the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2