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metastable pitting

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003612
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... In addition, the article provides a detailed discussion on the various stages of pitting. These include passive film breakdown, metastable pitting, pit growth, and pit stifling or death. pitting corrosion passive metals metal composition surface condition alloy composition corrosion inhibitors...
Book Chapter

By Jerome Kruger
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... that metastable pitting events—breakdown-repair processes that occur below the critical potential for breakdown, E crit —may be involved in breakdown. One of these studies ( Ref 99 ) proposes a mechanism that describes the events of metastable pitting that lead to stable pit growth as follows: Anion (e.g...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... interest to define these thresholds than it is to determine the rates in the regions where corrosion rates are high. Examples of the latter are pitting or crevice corrosion where passive films are broken down and local corrosion rates can be extremely high. This article addresses electrochemical methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... in that it showed evidence of current transients in titanium and Ti-6Al-4V that were ascribed to depassivation and metastable pitting. In Vitro Solutions Used for Electrochemical Testing of Biomaterials The in vivo environment can be approximated to first order as a saline solution (0.9% sodium chloride...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... (λ), which, in terms of frequency of occurrence, translates into a rapid decay from high initial values. Metastable pitting on stainless steels or on other noble alloys has often been characterized by such distribution. The electrochemical noise amplitude of singular events generated by corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... than the amorphous alloy, but other forms (with additional metastable phases or larger grains) have lower pitting potentials. In addition, it was found that the relative dissolution rates of the various devitrified states of this alloy changed with time in solution, suggesting that some phases may...
Book Chapter

By R.G. Kelly
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003613
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of the substrate under the crevice former and the virtual absence of attack on the fully exposed surface. The accelerated attack within the crevice usually appears as uniform corrosion or pitting. In some cases, it is thought that the attack starts as metastable pits that coalesce into a more uniform attack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003618
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... constituent particles generally formed from trace impurity elements that play a predominant role in pitting corrosion. The second category comprises the effects from precipitation of secondary phases and effects from solute remaining in solid solution on corrosion of aluminum. metallurgical effects...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... pitting and crevice corrosion to proceed. Massive failures due to pitting in water system components, such as utility condensers made of stainless steel, were identified as an MIC problem in the 1970s ( Ref 6 ). Corrosion damage was ascribed to metastable sulfur oxyanions produced by SRB...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... – 113 19. Pride S.T. , Scully J.R. , and Hudson J.L. , Analysis of Electrochemical Noise from Metastable Pitting in Aluminum, Aged Al- 2%Cu, and AA 2024-T3 , Electrochemical Noise Measurement for Corrosion Applications , STP 1277, Kearns J.R. , Scully J.R. , Roberge...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006372
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... 85 ) or forms microgalvanic cells Increasing the mass transfer coefficient by creating turbulent conditions or by creating a rough surface ( Ref 86 ) Facilitating the initiation of localized corrosion damage as the metastable pitting events are more numerous after particle impingement ( Ref 87...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., nickel, aluminum, and their alloys, are susceptible to damage ( Ref 4 ). Titanium and its alloys appear to be generally resistant ( Ref 5 – 8 ), although modest pitting due to MIC has been demonstrated in the laboratory ( Ref 9 ). Viable microorganisms can be found over a wide range of temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006268
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the effects of alloying and heat treatment on the metastable transition precipitates that occur in age hardenable aluminum alloys. Early precipitation stages are less well understood than later ones. This article details the aging sequence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... be an undesirable selective leaching of alloy components, however. The dissolution rate also can be accelerated by applied stress ( Ref 1 , 2 ). Passivating implants may suffer several forms of localized active corrosion, which are more dangerous than uniform dissolution. Electrochemical pitting occurs when...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... It then provides a description of heat-transfer surface area, discussing the design of the tubular heat exchanger. Next, the article discusses the processes involved in the examination of failed parts. Finally, it describes the most important types of corrosion, including uniform, galvanic, pitting, stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... defects on the inner surface of type 304 stainless steel pipe near weld root (a) and near through crack (b). Both 670× Crack Initiation at Corrosion Pits Stress- corrosion cracks can also initiate at pits that form during exposure to the service environment ( Fig. 6 ) or by prior cleaning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
...-corrosion cracking in high-temperature water. In contrast, Yan et al. ( Ref 79 ) determined that nanoscale silicon-rich oxide particles that precipitated during building of 316L parts using SLM can be advantageous for material properties. Optimization of postbuild processing determined that the metastable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... by the use of energy or particle beams. Elements may be added to influence the surface characteristics of the substrate by the formation of alloys, metastable alloys or phases, or amorphous layers. Surface-modified layers are distinguished from conversion or coating layers by their greater similarity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... are dependent on the surface area available for reaction and are therefore normalized to the surface area of the specimen. The exception is reactions that only occur at isolated sites on a specimen (e.g., pitting). In this case, the surface normalized rate underestimates local penetration rates. Stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... to a temperature below the equilibrium solvus to nucleate and grow metastable phase precipitates, which harden the matrix. In the high-strength copper-berylliums, the BeCu (γ) equilibrium precipitates form at grain boundaries only at higher age-hardening temperatures. On the other hand, the equilibrium γ phase...