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metalworking defects

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract The primary purpose of this article is to describe general root causes of failure that are associated with wrought metals and metalworking. This includes a brief review of the discontinuities or imperfections that may be common sources of failure-inducing defects in the bulk working...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... the macroscopic examination of defects, which occur in semisolid metalworking with illustrations. It discusses the macroscopic examination of gating systems and semisolid feedstocks. The article also provides information on feedstock microstructures, direct semisolid metalworking component microstructures...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article describes the general root causes of failure associated with wrought metals and metalworking. This includes a brief review of the discontinuities or imperfections that may be the common sources of failure-inducing defects in bulk working of wrought products. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... be important in applications where there are significant variations or gradients in the chemistry and defects present. Variations are, hence, present also in the mechanical properties of the workpiece material. Even in seemingly simple metalworking operations (such as open-die forging, direct extrusion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
..., to a large extent, as a near net-shape process offering remarkable cost advantage over traditional, ingot based metalworking processes. Application of PM technology continues to expand, with growth rates faster than other metalworking technologies. Powder Metallurgy processed components are being used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Metalworking is one of the three major technologies used to fabricate metal products. This article tabulates the classification of metal forming processes. It discusses different types of metalworking equipment, including rolling mills, ring-rolling machines, and thread-rolling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... further understood that tensile stresses, or better yet, hydrostatic tension, played a strong role in fracture during metalworking processes. Pioneering work by Bridgman ( Ref 3 ) during WWII showed that deforming materials under high superimposed hydrostatic pressure dramatically enhanced their ductility...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Abstract Metal injection molding (MIM) is a metalworking technology that has its origins as a commercial technology only dating back to the early 1970s. This article explores why the MIM is the preferred solution for many fabricated components. It illustrates the MIM components required...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... hot forging METALWORKING, with its thousands of years of history, is one of the oldest and most important materials processing technologies. During the last 30 years, with the continuous improvement of computing technology and the finite element method (FEM) as well as the competition for a lower...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
...-transfer model hot forging material selection microstructural model optimization design stress analysis METALWORKING, with its thousands of years of history, is one of the oldest and most important materials processing technologies. During the last 30 years, with the continuous improvement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... Abstract Electromagnetic induction is a way to heat electrically conductive materials such as metals. This article provides a brief history of electromagnetic induction and the development of induction heating technology. It explores various applications such as heating prior to metalworking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... workability tests and illustrates their application in practical forging situations. Workability tests for open-die forging of cast structures, hot and cold open-die forging of recrystallized structures, fracture-controlled defect formation, establishing effects of process variables and secondary tensile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of stress and strain states in various regions of workpieces suggests a convenient method of classifying cracking defects. Figures 2 , 3 , 4 in this article illustrate the locations at which free surface cracks occur in forging and rolling, as well as at the nose ends of billets in extrusion or rolling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... These defects may be deep enough to concentrate stresses and initiate fracture of the workpiece during aggressive machining passes. The built-up edge welded to the tip and cutting edge of the cutting tool during steady-state machining often breaks off and embeds in the workpiece surface when the cutting tool...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... in the physical properties of the metalworking fluid is responsible for a stick-slip phenomenon. It has been observed that proper selection of a fluid is critical and that increasing the extrusion speed also can eliminate stick-slip. Subsurface Defect Note that the type of metal flow shown in Fig. 4(c...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... and exit temperature, and their effect on product quality. The article also provides information on extrusion presses, press dies, and tooling, and addresses quality issues such as surface defects, blistering, and internal cracking. It concludes with a discussion on the drawing of solid section...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., temperature-cycling tensile Closed-die forging Laps or buckles, die fill Wedge forging, side pressing, isothermal tensile or compressive, temperature-cycling tensile Extrusion, wire drawing Center bursts, fracture Hot tensile (σ f , A f ) Wire/rod drawing Surface defects: fir-tree cracks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... withstand before cracking or fracture occurs. It is important, however, to allow for a more general definition in which workability is defined as the degree of deformation that can be achieved in a particular metalworking process without creating an undesirable condition. Generally, the undesirable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the extent of deformation a metal can withstand before cracking or fracture occurs. It is important, however, to allow for a more general definition in which workability is defined as the degree of deformation that can be achieved in a particular metalworking process without creating an undesirable condition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... flow and predict the occurrence of flow defects. A number of commercial codes are now available for use by industry, including DEFORM, FORGE, and Simufact. Today (2010), commercial off-the-shelf codes are available for a wide range of manufacturing processes for use in material and process design...