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metallurgical treatments

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... is similar to that of the aluminum alloy. Nonmetallic and metallic impurities are introduced into the melt during the charging process, the molten metal treatment, and the handling operations. Even when melting primary ingot, nonmetallic impurities such as hydrogen and aluminum oxide are introduced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract Heat treatment of depleted uranium (DU) alloys with 4.0 wt% or more molybdenum or equivalent is similar to that of dilute alloys. This article discusses the metallurgical characteristics and processing considerations of DU and its alloys, and describes the control of grain size and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... steel are added to the ladle along with deoxidizing materials, which have a major influence on the final quality, formability, and cost. Following ladle treatment, which can also be supplemented by a remelting/refining step not indicated in Fig. 1(a) , the steel is either cast into ingots or...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... selection will depend on economics, space constraints, auxiliary metal treatment capabilities, desired filtration efficiency, and end-product application. Reduction of entrapped particulates in a casting is governed first by proper melting and handling practices and then by management of the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... metallurgical processes, including pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, and electrometallurgical processes. electrometallurgical process extractive metallurgy hydrometallurgical process mineral processing mining pyrometallurgical process THE REVERSION of metals into compounds is a natural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... titanium alloys, when exposed to a corrosive environment under stress, is also reviewed. The final section of the article describes and shows fractographs that illustrate the influence of metallurgical discontinuities such as laps, seams, cold shuts, porosity, inclusions, segregation, and unfavorable grain...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... figures. In stir casting, molten metal is stirred with the help of either a mechanical stirrer ( Ref 8 ) or high-intensity ultrasonic treatment ( Ref 9 , 10 , 11 ) while the particles are added to the melt. This action disperses the reinforcing phase to create a composite melt, containing a suspension...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... knowledge of the characteristics of the many available casting alloys and the various heat treatments and their effect on the production and performance of the casting. There are many sources of information available, including ASM International ( Ref 3 ), the American Foundry Society ( Ref 4 ), and SAE...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... pressure infiltration have emerged as the two major processes to make composites. Presence of reinforcements in the melt influences solidification of castings in several ways, including the changes in the patterns of microsegregation that can reduce the heat treatment time required for castings. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... induced from thermal or mechanical operations. It is conducted at the lowest temperature at which stresses may be reduced to desired levels in practical times. In addition, treatments are selected so that oxidation and undesirable metallurgical factors are minimized. The effectiveness of a particular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003995
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... schedules. The article describes the metallurgical processes in grain refinement of austenite steel by hot working, such as recovery and recrystallization and strain-induced transformation. The grain refinement in high strength low alloy steel by alloy addition is also discussed. The article provides an...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... and the various metallurgical aspects, such as composition, alloying element, solidification, and graphite morphologies, of different types of cast iron. It describes the physical properties for various cast irons and the influence of microstructure and chemical composition on each property. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... galvanizing equipment and galvanizing post treatments. alloying elements batch galvanizing equipment batch hot dip galvanized coatings cleaning coating thickness conventional batch galvanizing galvanizing galvanizing post treatment iron mechanical properties metallurgical characteristics...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... (bull's-eye structure) surrounded by a pearlitic matrix. Abstract This article provides information on the general characteristics, composition, uses, applications and specifications for standard grades of ductile iron. It describes the manufacturing and metallurgical process control procedures...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003110
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... desired formation of temper carbon in malleable irons has two basic requirements: graphite should not form during the solidification of white cast iron, and graphite must be readily formed during the annealing heat treatment. These metallurgical requirements influence the useful compositions of malleable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... and liquid; the rate of heat removal is low. The important factors that influence the heat-transfer/metallurgical transformation during quench hardening are shown in Fig. 2 ( Ref 5 ). Of all the factors listed, only a few can be changed in the heat treatment shop. The selection of the optimum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006266
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... metallurgical objectives, but there are differences. For example, stress relief and recrystallization are common in the wrought-alloy process but are less common in cast alloys. The emphasis of this article is on the solution treatment and age hardening of cast nickel-base superalloys, but it also includes heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract This article describes the heat treatment of wrought solid-solution and precipitation-hardening alloys with a focus on the major families of wrought nickel alloys. It also provides information on the heat treatment of some representative solid-solution alloys in the Monel (Ni-Cu...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006261
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract This article provides information on nickel alloying elements, and the heat treatment processes of various nickel alloys for applications requiring corrosion resistance and/or high-temperature strength. These processes are homogenization, annealing, solution annealing, solution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract This article provides information on the salt baths used for a variety of heat treatments, including heating, quenching, interrupted quenching (austempering and martempering), case hardening, and tempering. It describes two general types of salt bath systems for steel hardening: the...