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metallurgical microscope

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Image
Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 15 Image formation in a metallurgical microscope employing brightfield illumination More
Image
Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 16 Example of an inverted metallurgical reflecting microscope for photomicroscopy (referred to as a metallograph). Courtesy of C. Brandmaier, Nikon Inc. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003637
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract This article focuses on the effects of microscopic organisms and the by-products they produce on the electrochemical corrosion of metals. The general characteristics of the microorganisms that facilitate their influence on the electrochemistry of corrosion are discussed. The industries...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Microstructural analysis is the combined characterization of the morphology, elemental composition, and crystallography of microstructural features through the use of a microscope. This article reviews three types of the most commonly used electron microscopies in metallurgical studies...
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
) Scanning electron microscope secondary-electron image of the fracture surface at the interface between the stainless steel tube (top) and the copper braze (bottom). Original magnification: 1500×. (d) Metallurgical section through one crack associated with the drip mark. As-polished. Original magnification More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... the development of these instruments, polarized light has been used less frequently for this purpose, because identification with the EMPA or EDS techniques is more definitive. The basic arrangement for image enhancement by polarized light is shown in Fig. 22 . Most metallurgical microscopes now use...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... dating back to the sixteenth century to the state-of-the-art work in electron fractography and quantitative fractography. It also describes the applications and limitations of scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. electron fractography fractography microfractography...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Examination Metallurgical microscopes differ from biological microscopes primarily in the manner by which the specimen is illuminated. Unlike biological microscopes, metallurgical microscopes must use reflected light. Figure 15 is a simplified ray diagram of a metallurgical microscope, while Fig. 16...
Book Chapter

By Bo Hu
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Abstract Particle image analysis of metal powders can be easily performed with optical macroscopes and microscopes. This article provides examples of the particle image analysis on powders used in the powder metallurgy industry. metal powders optical macroscopes optical microscopes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... specimens of metals and alloys with a cubic crystal structure (body-centered cubic and face-centered cubic) can be viewed in polarized light (with or without the sensitive tint filter) to enhance coloration if it is weak in bright field. Metallurgical microscopes usually incorporate synthetic Polaroid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... , 7 , 8 , and 10 . The pearlite appears dark in these microstructures, because the etchant attacked the ferrite phase in the pearlite, leaving the cementite phase untouched. In a metallurgical microscope, the incident beam of light was scattered (reflected) away from the microscope objective...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... electron microscope (SEM), most splats appear separated from their neighbors ( Fig. 8 ), evidencing a lack of metallurgical bonding between them. (However, in situ sintering of ceramics is well documented in the literature, and HVOF spraying of metals, which can cause a 170 °C, or 310 °F, increase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... , Tani Y. , and Sato H. , Thickness Measurement of a Metallurgically Damaged Layer on a Ground Surface Using an Acoustic Microscope , Ann. CIRP , Vol 38 ( No. 1 ), 1989 , p 549 – 552 10.1016/S0007-8506(07)62766-8 49. Ramanath S. and Shaw M.C. , Role of Abrasive...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... deformation, including stress-rupture fractures. It also describes metallurgical instabilities, such as aging and carbide reactions, and evaluates the complex effects of creep-fatigue interaction. The article concludes with a discussion on thermal fatigue and creep fatigue failures. aging carbide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003746
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... microchemical analysis procedures that may precede metallography in complete materials characterization programs or failure analysis protocols. Metallurgical sectioning is important and critical when preparing specimens for physical or microscopic analysis. First and foremost, metallography is, by its...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article focuses on failure analyses of aircraft components from a metallurgical and materials engineering standpoint, which considers the interdependence of processing, structure, properties, and performance of materials. It discusses methodologies for conducting aircraft...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003661
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... In the microscopic method, a metallurgical microscope is focused on the lip of the pit and then on the bottom of the pit. The difference between the initial and final readings on the fine-focusing knob or stage vernier is the pit depth. Evaluation of Pitting Pitting can be described in several ways. Reference...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... composition. Courtesy of F. Zia-Ebrahimi The parallel lamellae act as diffraction gratings in the light microscope and diffract light of various wavelengths to produce the colors and the luster characteristic of pearls. Thus, early metallographers used the name pearlite for the unique lamellar...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... to 25 kV is common for most metallurgical and ceramic applications. The electromagnetic lenses in the column are used to form a small-diameter electron probe (>5 nm in diameter for most scanning electron microscopes). A set of scan coils raster the electron probe over the specimen surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of nucleation sites leads to a Widmanstätten or basketweave structure in the matrix. Intermetallic compounds or second-phase particles of Zr-Fe, Zr-Cr, or Zr-Ni will form as small precipitates in the metal structure ( Ref 1 ). Beta quenching during the metallurgical processing will help to distribute...