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metallurgical instabilities

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses on the life assessment methods for elevated-temperature failure mechanisms and metallurgical instabilities that reduce life or cause loss of function or operating time of high-temperature components, namely, gas turbine blade, and power plant piping and tubing. The...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... deformation, including stress-rupture fractures. It also describes metallurgical instabilities, such as aging and carbide reactions, and evaluates the complex effects of creep-fatigue interaction. The article concludes with a discussion on thermal fatigue and creep fatigue failures. aging carbide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... also discussed. The article describes the fracture characteristics of stress rupture. Information on various metallurgical instabilities is also provided. The article presents a description of thermal-fatigue cracks, as distinguished from creep-rupture cracks. creep-rupture cracks creep...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003620
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... divacancy diffusivity of 10 −12 cm 2 /s (1.6 × 10 −13 in. 2 /s). Researchers ( Ref 64 ) showed that if the dealloying process is rate limited by the volume diffusion of the less noble element to the electrolyte-alloy interface, a roughening instability is predicted. This instability is proposed as a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003619
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... chemical composition, the corrosion rate of the same alloy can vary several orders of magnitude, depending on its particular microstructure. The most important metallurgical factors that need to be considered are second-phase precipitation by thermal instability and the presence of CW. The latter is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003618
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the metallurgical effects on corrosion of different series of aluminum alloys (1xxx, 2xxx, 3xxx, 4xxx, 5xxx, 6xxx, and 7xxx) that are classified into two categories. The first category includes the effects from insoluble, intermetallic constituent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... aluminum components. Al-Mg-Si alloys coupled reactions diffusional transformation duplex stainless steel engineering design fusion welding grain growth heat treatment heat-affected zone internal state variable approach isokinetic reaction load-bearing capacity metallurgical microstructure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002364
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... instabilities caused by cyclic deformations. It discusses the effect of mean stress on fatigue life and presents the analysis of cumulative fatigue damage. The article concludes with examples of application techniques for fatigue life prediction. cyclic deformation cyclic stress-strain curve fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003724
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... occurs. The article details five types of solidification undercooling, namely, kinetic, thermal, constitutional (solutal), curvature, and pressure undercooling. It explains the types of nucleation which occur in the melt during solidification. The effects of local instabilities at the solid/liquid...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...-V) , Harrigan W.C. , Strife J. , and Dhingra A.K. , Ed., American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers , 1985 , p 809 34. Masur L.J. , Mortensen A. , Cornie J.A. , and Flemings M.C. , Pressure Casting of Fiber Reinforced Metals...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... restriction of liquid in narrow interstices between fibers or particles Settle or float due to density differences Influence morphological instabilities, including planer-to-dendritic solidification Be pushed or entrapped ahead of the solidifying interface Influence dendrite arm coarsening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... titanium alloys, when exposed to a corrosive environment under stress, is also reviewed. The final section of the article describes and shows fractographs that illustrate the influence of metallurgical discontinuities such as laps, seams, cold shuts, porosity, inclusions, segregation, and unfavorable grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003623
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... content and second phase that metallurgical instability and thermal response are not significant. Therefore, titanium weldments and associated HAZs generally do not experience corrosion limitations in welded components when normal passive conditions prevail for the base metal. However, under marginal or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... alloys in water and heat flow conditions that causes irradiation on the zirconium alloy assemblies. It discusses the effect of irradiation on the microstructure and morphology of cladded linings. The article describes the impact of metallurgical parameters on the oxidation resistance of zirconium alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... Abstract Fusion-based additive manufacturing (AM) processes rely on the formation of a metallurgical bond between a substrate and a feedstock material. Energy sources employed in the fusion AM process include conventional arcs, lasers, and electron beams. Each of these sources is discussed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... article discusses the equipment suitable for microjoining and the metallurgical consequences and postweld metrology of the process. It also provides examples of developmental welds employing laser and electron beam microwelding techniques. coalescence driving fluid flow electron beam electron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Abstract This article describes the classification of ferritic stainless steels. It reviews the metallurgical characteristics of various ferritic grades as well as the factors that influence their weldability. The article provides a discussion on various arc welding processes. These processes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract Quenching is a widely used technique to strengthen titanium alloys. This article presents the metallurgical and structural background underlying the specific techniques applied in the quenching of various titanium alloys, and the ways to control and reduce residual stresses induced...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article describes the preliminary stages and general procedures, techniques, and precautions employed in the investigation and analysis of metallurgical failures that occur in service. The most common causes of failure characteristics are described for fracture, corrosion, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Abstract Mechanical properties are described as the relationship between forces (or stresses) acting on a material and the resistance of the material to deformation (i.e., strains) and fracture. This article briefly introduces the typical relationships between metallurgical features and the...